Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Parts of Speech

No description
by

Andrew Olson

on 4 August 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Parts of Speech

Parts of Speech
Nouns 1
A
noun
is a word(s) that names a person, place, thing, or idea.

A
common noun
names general people, places, things, or ideas:
town
,
country
,
professor
.

A
proper noun
names specific people, places, things, or ideas. In general, proper nouns are capitalized:
Miami
,
USA
,
Mr. Olson
.

A
concrete noun
names things that can be sensed (seen, felt, heard, smelled, touched):
wind
,
sunlight
,
pencil
, etc.

An
abstract noun
names ideas, concepts, beliefs, and qualities:
freedom
,
socialism
,
bravery
, etc.
The Legos of the Written Word
There are eight common parts of speech. Each of the eight has various roles in language and can be quite complex.

But to communicate and write effectively, one must be able to recognize and understand these essential elements of English:

1) Nouns 5) Adverbs
2) Pronouns 6) Conjunctions
3) Verbs 7) Prepositions
4) Adjectives 8) Interjections
Nouns 2
A
count noun
names an item that can be counted. In general, count nouns become plural by adding -s or -es: three
lectures
, two
cars
, but some count nouns form plurality irregularly: three blind
mice
, not three blind mouses, etc.

A
noncount noun
names ideas or things that cannot be counted:
water
,
happiness
,
bravery
. In general, noncount nouns do not have plural forms.

A
collective noun
names groups of things, places, or people and can be either singular or plural depending on its use in the sentence:
pack
,
couple
,
class
,
team
.

A noun will either act as a subject or a complement (such as a direct or indirect object) within a sentence.
Pronouns 1
A
pronoun
is a word that takes the place of a noun. The noun (or other pronoun) that a pronoun is taking place of is called the
antecedent
:
Susan
studied, but
she
still didn't understand.
she
= a
pronoun
that takes the place of the
antecedent

Susan
, a noun.

A
personal pronoun
takes the place of people or things:
I
,
me
,
you
,
he
, him,
she
,
her
,
it
,
we
,
us
,
they
,
them
.

A
possessive pronoun
shows possession (ownership):
mine
,
yours
,
hers
,
his
,
theirs
,
ours
.

A
demonstrative pronoun
demonstrates someone or something:
this
,
that
,
these
,
those
.

Pronouns 2
A
relative pronoun
relates one part of a sentence to another. Usually, the relative pronoun introduces a dependent clause (part of a sentence) that modifies a noun or pronoun it is referring to in another part of the sentence.
Who
,
whom
,
which
,
that
, and
whose
are relative pronouns.
Ex: The student
whom
I failed

last semester
is back for more.
whom = a relative pronoun which refers to student. It also begins the italicized dependent clause.

A
reflexive pronoun
(intensive pronoun) relates back to someone or something in the sentence and ends in -self or -selves:
myself
,
yourself
,
himself
,
herself
,
itself
,
ourselves
,
yourselves
,
themselves
.
Ex:
You
've gotta ask
yourself
a question: "Do I feel lucky?"

yourself = reflexive pronoun relating back to you
Pronouns 3
An
interrogative pronoun
introduces or asks a question:
who
,
whoever
,
whomever
,
whose
,
what
,
which
.
Ex: What in heavens is Mr. O talking about now?

An
indefinite pronoun
does not relate to specific nouns, but rather relates to people, places, or things in general. However, at times, they do relate to a specific item that has already been mentioned in the sentence. There is a long list of indefinite pronouns:

all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, most, much, neither, no one, nobody, none, nothing, one, other, others, several, some, somebody, someone, something

A
reciprocal pronoun
denotes an interchange or exchange between two or more parties:
each other
,
one another
.
Adjectives 1
An
adjective
is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. An adjective generally answers the following questions:
Which one? What kind? How Many?

An
article
is a type of adjective and takes only three different forms:
a
,
an
, and
the
. When
a
,
an
, or
the
appear right before a noun or pronoun, they are considered adjectives.
A
and
an
are considered indefinite articles because they are non-specific, while
the
is a definite article because it names something or someone specific.

Ex:
A
house needs repair. Ex:
The
house needs repair.

A
descriptive adjective
describes a quality of the noun or pronoun it is modifying:
purple
flower,
hideous
face,
unforgettable
game
Adjectives 2
A
limiting adjective
limits or describes the scope of the noun or pronoun it is describing:
my
iPhone,
third
class,
that
textbook.

A
proper adjective
comes from a proper noun and is always capitalized. These proper nouns turned proper adjectives describe or limit the noun or pronoun they modify:
Chinese
food,
Native-American
art,
English
culture.



Adverbs 1
An
adverb
modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Many adverbs end in -ly, but not all do. Generally, adverbs will answer one or more of the following questions about the word being modified:

How? Under what circumstance?
When? How much?
Where? How often?
Why? To what extent?

Ex: Sarah
quickly
left class.

Ex:
Yesterday
a student
suddenly
became
quite
sick and
nearly
fainted in class.

Adverbs 2
Generally, an adverb that modifies an adjective or another adverb is located next to that word.

A special type of adverb, known as a
conjunctive adverb
, joins independent clauses to form one sentence:

accordingly, also, besides, consequently, finally, furthermore, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, next, otherwise, still, therefore, thus

To use a conjunctive adverb correctly, an independent thought must flank it on either side (and must be closely related), proper punctuation must be used, and the proper conjunctive adverb should be used.

Ex: Mr. O is an amazingly talented instructor
; furthermore
,
he is very humble.
Verbs 1
A
verb
is a word that expresses action or being.

An
action verb
is a word that expresses action. Action verbs are either
transitive
or
intransitive
.

A
transitive verb
is an action verb that takes an object. That is, the verb expresses its action onto someone or something. An
intransitive verb
does not. A way to test whether an action verb is transitive or not is to ask
whom?
or
what?
of the verb

Ex: I
taught
the class about verbs.
Taught
whom?
the class
=
transitive
Ex: I
taught
English with gusto.
Taught
what?
English
=
transitive
Ex: I
taught
throughout the morning.
Taught
whom/what?
???
=
intransitive
Ex: I
taught
without success.
Taught
whom/what?
???
=
intransitive
Verbs 2
A
being verb
is a verb that expresses not action, but being. In general, this means that the verb is a form of
be.
The forms of be include:
am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, has been, should have been, may be,
and
might be.

Being verbs seem confusing, but just common sense is needed to understand them. For instance, "I
am
mad" really expresses being. However, we wouldn't say, I
be
mad.
Am
is the present tense form of
be
.

A
linking verb
links a word to words that describe it. In this way, linking verbs explain what something is, was, or will become. An example of a linking verb is a
being verb
.

Ex: The students
remain
dumbfounded. Ex: The student
was
confused.
Verbs 3
A
helping verb,
or auxiliary verb, accommodates and pairs with main verbs to express tense, mood, voice or to add information.

A helping verb and main verb is known as a
verb phrase
.

Common helping verbs include:
be
,
do
,
have
,
can
,
may
,
might
,
must
,
shall
,
should
,
will
, and
would
.

Ex: The professor
should explain
verbs more clearly.

Ex: The student
was

willing
to study.

Ex: You
can learn
grammar if you try hard enough.
Verbs 4
Verb forms
: verbs can take four main forms:
present infinitive
(look),
past tense
(
looked
),
past participle
(
looked
), and
present participle
(
looking
).

Most verbs form the past tense and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the present infinitive form. The types of verbs that can just add -d or -ed are called
regular verbs
.

Verbs that cannot form the past tense and past participle by simply adding -d, -ed are
irregular verbs
:
rise
(present infinitive),
rose
(past tense),
risen
(past participle),
rising
(present participle).



Verbs 5
The
infinitive
form is the base form of the verb. (I
look
at the paper next to me when cheating on quizzes.)

The
past
form is used to indicate something that has happened in the past. (I
looked
at the paper next to me when I cheated on the quiz.)

The
past participle
form is used with a helping or modal verb(s). (I
had looked
at the paper next to me just before Mr. O yelled at me.)

The
present participle
form is used to show continuing action. (Mr. O yelled at the student who was
looking
at another student's paper.)
Verbs 6
Verb tense
relates to time and informs the reader when action has happened, is happening, or will happen. The main tenses are
present
,
past
, and
future
. However, for each of these main tenses, there are four other tense forms:


Simple


Progressive

Perfect

Perfect Progressive

Present
write am/is/are have/has have/has been
writing written writing

Past
wrote was/were had had been
writing written written

Future
will/shall will be will have will have been
write writing written writing
Prepositions
A
preposition
is a word that connects a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. You can find lists of prepositions on the internet or in your textbook. A preposition will generally help provide information that relates to the position or condition of something.

The word that a noun or pronoun is connected to (by the preposition) is the
object of the preposition
.

When a group of words starts with a preposition and ends with its object, it is considered a
prepositional phrase
.

Ex: The tall instructor
with the weird accent
is Mr. Olson.
Ex: Mr. O lectured
about grammar.

Conjunction
A
conjunction
joins words in a sentence. There are three types of conjunctions:

A
coordinating conjunction
is perhaps the most common and well-known. Use the acronym
fanboys
to help you remember the coordinating conjunctions:
for
,
and
,
nor
,
but
,
or
,
yet
,
so
.

A
correlative conjunction
is a two part conjunction. These pairs work together and relate to each other in a sentence. They include:
both/and
,
either/or
,
neither/nor
,
not only/also
,
not only/but also
.

A
subordinating conjunction
begins a dependent clause (subordinate clause). Some common subordinating conjunctions include:
after
,
although
,
because
,
before
,
if
,
since
,
that
,
though
,
unless
,
until
,
when
,
where
,
while
Interjection
An
interjection
is a word that can express some kind of immediate emotion. It may also be used as a gap filler. Many times interjections stand alone, but if they are a part of a sentence, they do not change the meaning of the sentence if taken out.

Ex:
Stop!
I'm still taking notes on this.

Ex:
Well
, I don't know the answer to that question.

Ex: Mr. Olson is
like
a totally tubular dude.

Ex:
Yo!
Did you get my text bro?
Full transcript