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Europe in the Late 1800s

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Kevin Grimm

on 28 August 2018

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Transcript of Europe in the Late 1800s

Europe in the Late 1800s
Czar Alexander II (1855-1881):
- freed serfs in 1861 - land still collectively owned though
- zemstovs - local assemblies of towns, villages, nobles, but controlled by main gov./nobles
- railroad, geographic expansion - 1860-1890
- 1890-1900 finance minister Sergei Witte leads huge railroad, industrial growth, invites foreign investment

International issues:
- sphere of influence in Manchuria by 1903, threatening Korea
- Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 ends in defeat

Revolution of 1905:
- liberals, workers, peasants all upset
- Bloody Sunday in January - hundreds killed/injured in St. Petersburg
- strikes, peasant uprisings, minority revolts, army mutinies
- October general strike forces Czar to issue October Manifesto - civil rights, elected assembly (Duma) - shortly afterwards Czar retreats to more conservative Duma setup

Russia, 1850s - 1900s
High-level trends by 1914:
- universal manhood suffrage
- parliamentary system
- militaristic foreign policies after 1871

Bismarck (1871-1890):
- 1870s - Bismarck/National Liberals conduct Kulturkampf to reduce power of Catholic church in Germany (due to Pope Piux IX's 1870 doctrine of papal infallibility)
- blocked by Catholic-supported Center Party
- 1878 - 1890 - laws restrict socialist meetings/publications, but also provides state-supported social safety net to workers to head off socialism

Bismarck's downfall - 1890:
- King Wilhelm II (1888-1918) wants to lift ban on Social Democratic Party, rule himself
- Bismarck forced to resign, socialist political activity legalized, more social legislation passed

1912 - Social Democratic Party largest in Germany, yet patriotic, supports more defense spending and aggressive foreign policy
Germany, 1871-1914
French Third Republic, 1870-1940:
- by 1880, National Assembly led by moderate republicans
- advances in 1880s-1890s
- trade unions legalized
- compulsory education for boys/girls
- state system of public schools, education removed from Catholic Church

Dreyfus Affair of 1890s:
- Jewish captain wrongfully accused of treason - 1894
- trial in 1898-1899 is national sensation
- army/anti-Semites/Catholic church vs. civil libertarians/radical republicans
- declared innocent eventually
- 1901-1905 all ties severed between gov. and Catholic church
- main conflict after 1905 between republican nationalists and growing socialist movement
France
Problems:
- loses Serbia (1816), Greece (1830), Algeria (1830)
- 1831 and 1839 crises with Muhammad Ali of Egypt seizing Iraq/Syria and moving on Anatolia
- Europeans want a weak Ottoman Empire

Tanzimat (1839-1876):
- constitution, parliament,
- Imperial Rescript of 1857 - legal equality, modern admin/military, religious freedom for Christians, Muslims, Jews
- foreign goods/merchants/investment allowed in
- elite embraces Western education/secular values

Reasons for failure:
- losses to local uprisings/Russians create discontent with gov.
- foreign dominance of economy obstructs further reform
- disputes among secularist and conservative Muslims
- conservative Sultan Abdulhamid comes to power in 1876

Still....
- modernizing/liberalizing Young Turks seize power in 1908 revolution and implement reforms - on modern/secular path
Ottoman Empire
Triumph of Liberalism:
- voting advances in 1832, 1867, 1884 (full manhood suffrage finally)
- 1901 - 1906 House of Lords blocks bills on unions/social welfare programs
- 1906 king threatens to expand peerage, House of Lords gives in
- last vestige of aristocratic conservatism overcome in 1906
- 1906-1914 - Liberal Party/House of Commons raise taxes and put social welfare programs in place

The Case of Ireland:
- after 1840s famine, slowly gaining rights
- Anglican Church's privileges reduced, peasant rights grow
- 1913 home rule bill passes British Parliament
- BUT - Protestants in six northern counties (Ulster) want to remain with Britain - threaten armed resistance to home rule
England and Ireland
A shared crown:
- Hungary crushed in 1849, but forces Dual Monarchy in 1867
- empire in two halves, virtual independence for Hungary
- only crown and financial, defense, and foreign policies joined
- Austria still plagued by ethnic divisions (Czechs, Slovaks)
- Hungarian constitution favors wealthy, Hungarian peasants and ethnic minorities left out
- nationalism weakens and ultimately destroys empire by 1918

Why no socialism before 1917?
- Second International (1889-1914)/May Days
- workers with vote push for change through elections, not revolutions
- socialist parties gain power and like it, become less radical
- ethnic/social diversity and nationalism divides workers
- labor unions provide avenue for advances - hours/wages/conditions - instead of revolution
Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918 (The Dual Monarchy)
Public letter criticizing the army during the affair, January 1898, by Emile Zola
"New" Imperialism
Motives:
- political - hyper-nationalism, great powers hold colonies
- cultural - missionary movements, bring Western education, medicine, monogamous marriage, to other regions - took on internal African slave trade, custom of killing twins, Indian sati
- racism - technology showed Europeans to be superior, non-whites permanently inferior, which justifies colonial expansion
- economic - raw materials needed, also gold/diamonds and usual goods like sugar, coffee, tea, tobacco
- depressions in 1870s and 1890s spur business to look abroad
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