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Transcript of Social Marketing
“Social marketing is the use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole.” (Kotler, 2002)
Pioneered by Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman in the 1970's (Kotler, 2011)
Protect the enviornment
Contribute to communities
Commercial vs Social Marketing
Selling goods and services vs selling behaviour change
Financial gain vs individual/societal gain
Criteria for selecting target markets
• A customer orientation is applied
• Exchange theory is fundamental
• Marketing research is used throughout the process
• Audiences are segmented
• All 4p’s are considered
• Results are measured and used for improvement
What are Legal Highs?
“Substances with psychotropic effects that are intentionally marketed and distributed for recreational use by exploiting inadequacies of existing controlled substance legislation.” (Current legal highs, 2013)
Just because they are marketed as legal substances
does not mean they are safe.
They haven't been tested on humans
Can't be sure what your taking or what the effects might be
To educate, inform and raise awareness to 17-25 yr about what legal highs are and the risks and consequences that are involved with taking them
Social Problem- Legal Highs
Influencing Individual Behaviors
Reports & Extent of Problem
“one in 12 young people in the UK admitted to having taken legal highs - the highest figure in Europe” BBC News (2013) 1
“The owners of a shop that sells legal highs have defended their firm after a 17-year-old suffered a near-fatal reaction to a product they sold.” BBC News (2013) 2
“teenager who nearly died from a heart attack after taking a so-called "legal high" has said the drugs should be banned.” BBC News (2013) 3
“Brighton medical student Hester Stewart, 21, died in 2009 after taking the then-legal drug.” BBC News (2013) 4
“A teenager has died after taking a "legal high" he bought on the internet.” BBC News (2013) 5
“Jimmy Guichard, 20, died in hospital within hours of taking a legal high” Robinson, M. (2013)
(Legal highs hallow, 2013)
What are the risks?
"the urge to alter one's consciousness is as primary as the drive to satiate thirst, hunger or sexual desire."
- Ronald K. Siegel
Downstream: Individual Involvement
Fundamental focus is on the consumer (Hastings & Haywood, 1991)
"Well, if my friends were going to take them on a night out or at a festival, I probably would too."
"The fact they are legal makes them much more accessible than any illegal drugs. You can buy them on the internet."
"There are so many to choose from and (the packaging) makes them look really fun. They do not really look dangerous."
"If they are legal they must be safe. Everyone who has been affected have just taken too much."
Self-Perceptions & Beliefs
(Prochaska & Di Clemente, 1982)
Anxiety, paranoia, psychosis
Reduce concentration, slowed reactions, lethargic, forgetful, physically unsteady
Alter perception, hallucinations, act erratically, disregard to safety
(Talk to Frank, 2013)
NHS and Ambulance services
No print media campaigns
(Cheng, H. et al, 2011)
BBC News (2013) 4
Robinson, M. (2013)
NHS (2013) 2
BBC News (2004) 6
Information taken from: An investigation into so-called legal highs (2013)
An investigation into so-called legal highs (2013) Tonight, Series 17, episode 31. ITV, 17th October.
Ajzen, I (1985). Action Control: From Cognition to Behaviour. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 11-39.
Angelus Foundation (2013). Homepage. Available at: http://www.angelusfoundation.com [accessed 22nd October 2013]
Angelus Foundation. (2013). Blowing the Lid on "Legal Highs". Available at: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/angelus-welcomes-itv-tonights-blowing-the-lid-on-legal-highs-industry-228093911.html. [accessed 1st October 2013.]
Arbuthnott.G (2009) Image from Legal highs. Available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdkD4dQnhLc [accessed 1st October 2013]
BBC News (2004) 6. Image from Officers call for drug dealer tax. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3994531.stm [accessed 23rd October 2013]
BBC News (2013) 1. UK is Europe's 'addictions capital', says think tank. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23913818 [accessed 2nd November 2013]
BBC News (2013) 2. Criticised Canterbury store defends 'legal high' trade. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-kent-24562214 [accessed 2nd November 2013]
BBC News (2013) 3. Kent 'legal high' victim calls for drug ban. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-24484837 [accessed 3rd November 2013]
BBC News (2013) 4. Brighton and Hove legal highs drugs clinics opened. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-sussex-24469758 [accessed 3rd November 2013]
BBC News (2013) 5. Southampton teenager dies after taking 'legal high' AMT. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-hampshire-23758695 [accessed 3rd November 2013]
Cheng, H. et al. (2011). Social Marketing for Public Health: Global Trends and Success Stories. London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 22-26.
Crew (2013). Legal Highs. Available at: http://www.crew2000.org.uk/party-safer/legal-highs.html [accessed 3rd November 2013]
Current legal highs, The Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 1108–1115, 2013:Elsevier Inc
Hastings G, Haywood A. (1991). Social marketing and communication in health promotion. Health Promotion International Vol 6(2), pp 135–145.
Kotler. P, Roberto. N, Lee. N, (2002) 2nd ed., Social marketing- Improving the quality of life. Sage Publications pp 10
Kotler.P, Lee.N, (2011) 4th ed. Social Marketing: Influencing behaviours for good. Sage Publications
Laura Brierley. (2013). Legal Highs: A safe bet?. Available at: http://sparknewspaper.co.uk/uncategorized/legal-highs-a-safe-bet/. [accessed 28th October 2013.]
Legal Highs Lethal Lows (2013) Highs. Available at: http://www.legalhighslethallows.co.uk / [accessed 21st October 2013]
NHS (2013) 2. Image from Homepage. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Pages/HomePage.aspx [accessed 4th November 2013]
NHS (2013). Legal Highs. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/drugs/Pages/legalhighs.aspx [accessed 4th November 2013]
Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C, C. (1992) Stages of change in the modification of problem behaviours. In M, Hersen, R.M. & P.M. Miller (Eds), Progress in behaviour modification (Vol. 28, PP.183-218). Sycamore
Psychology & Culture. (2013). Image from: Academic Books. Available: http://myebooksonline.co.uk/index.php/academic-books-c-23. [accessed 1st October 2013]
Robinson, M. (2013). Horrific cost of taking legal highs. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2470128/Horrific-cost-taking-legal-highs-Mother-releases-shocking-picture-dying-son-20-suffered-heart-attack-smoking-herbal-substance.html [accessed 31st October 2013]
Siegel, R (2005). Intoxication: The universal pursuit of mind-altering substances. 2nd ed. Vermont: E.P Dutton. p145-153.
STV news . (2013). Legal highs implicated in deaths of 47 people last year in Scotland. Available: http://news.stv.tv/scotland/237481-new-challenge-for-agencies-as-legal-highs-implicated-in-47-scottish-deaths/. Last accessed 1st Nov. 2013
TalktoFrank (2013). LEGAL HIGHS. Available at: http://www.talktofrank.com/drug/legal-highs [accessed 24th October 2013]
Word Press. (2010). Crowd sourcing the answers. Available: https://robrozicki.wordpress.com/2010/05/27/. Last accessed 29th Oct 2013.
Legal Highs cannot be sold for human consumption
Sold as plant food, bath salts or herbal remedies