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Assessing Reading Achievement

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Abby Tawater

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Assessing Reading Achievement

What reading evaluation approach relies on techniques such as miscue analysis, clinical observation, and diagnostic checklists?
a) Norm-referenced testing
b) Informal reading inventories
c) Curriculum-based assessment
What is Reading?
Assessing Reading Achievement
Reading is a multi-faceted process involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation.
In simpler terms...Reading is making meaning from print. It involves three basic parts:
Reading recognition (correct pronunciation)
Reading comprehension (understanding content)
Silent reading (no speech or sound-special skill set required)
Why Do We Assess Reading?
SCREEN students who may have reading deficits
PLACE students with reading disabilities
PLAN reading instruction and intervention programs
IDENTIFY present levels of reading performance
DEVELOP IEP goals and objectives in reading
ASSESS student progress in reading
MONITOR the effectiveness of reading programs
Informal Reading Inventories
More direct translation into daily instructions than standardized tests
Graded word lists for testing word recognition and reading passages for evaluating oral reading, silent reading, and reading comprehension.
Measures these things at three levels: independent, frustration, instructional.
Curriculum-Based Reading Assessment
Informal evaluation that is directly linked with curriculum
In class reading assignments, papers, homework, class tests
Measure reading performance
Develop Instructional objectives and activities
Norm-Referenced Reading Tests
Formal assessment with standardized instruments
Multiple-skill tests and single-skill tests
Useful in placing and classifying students in reading programs and special education programs
Complement informal curriculum-based reading assessments
Curriculum based data can be used to support norm-referenced results and the combination of both can provide a complete picture of a student's performance level.
Clinical Observation
Directly and Systematically observing students in different reading situations
Gives teachers impression of students' reading abilities, awareness of books, and social development
Best way to assess motivation and attention
Students should be observed over a period of time in different situations (oral reading, silent reading, casual reading, small groups, testing)
Observation at a distance vs. close-in
Observation is usually combined with another assessment method for best results.
Diagnostic Checklists
Things to Watch for
Attitude toward reading
Specific reading interests
Reading progress
Types of errors
Analysis skills
Easy way to record observations, comments, and notes.
Pinpoint behaviors in chart format
Can be used for many different subject areas, but most effective for reading
Provide permanent record of assessment results (great for tracking progress)
3 types:
Oral Reading
Checklist (scale 1-3) may include:
1. Reads Expressively
2. Reads at an Appropriate Rate
3. Reads for meaning
4. Not easily frustrated
5. Displays good comprehension
6. Other
Silent Reading
Checklist (scale 1-3) may include:
1. Points to individual words
2. Whispers words
3. Holds book too closely
4. Runs a finger down the whole page
5. Moves head while reading
6. Other
Reading Comprehension
Checklist (scale 1-3) may include:
1. Answers factual questions about the passage
2. Classifies, categorizes, and summarizes
3. Makes inferences and predictions based on the passage
4. Answers valuative questions about the passage
5. Critically analyzes the passage
6. Other
5 Levels of Comprehension:
Factual, Organizational, Inferential, Evaluation, Analysis
Miscue Analysis
"Error analysis"
Measures and evaluates student mistakes
Uses results to plan a remedial program
Helps determine error patterns and chronic errors
Best for measuring oral text reading
Typical Reading errors include:
Mispronunciations, omissions, insertions, repetitions
Running Records
Teachers use running records to guide teaching, assess text difficulty, and to capture student progress.
Substitutions, insertions, omissions, and teacher-told responses
Understand the miscue:
Which cues did the reader misuse? Semantics, Syntax, Graphophonics
Check for Comprehension:
Retelling, sequencing, details, main points
Cloze Procedures
Tests of word prediction abilities that measure comprehension skills and the way students use cues to identify words
Vizual cloze is most common:
In an Auditory Cloze, the instructor reads the passage aloud and the student inserts the missing words.
Sometimes cloze procedures are modified to alter difficulty.
Ex: "The mouse ran up the _____ (clock, sock)
"The cat ran up the t___[tree]"
Scoring Cloze Procedures
44%-57% correct= Text is appropriate for instruction

<44%= Text is too difficult

>57%= Text is too easy
Analytical Reading Inventory, Seventh Edition
K-12 comprehensive IRI with narrative and expository passages
Thorough one on one analysis of reading strategies
For use by all students, gifted through remedial
Accommodations available for special needs
Results are valid and reliable and provide accurate information about student level of instruction, strategies for word recognition and text comprehension, and oral/silent reading performance
Basic Reading Inventory, Eighth Edition
Pre-Primer Through grade 12 and Early Literacy Assessments
Individually administered IRIs used by many different specialists
CD with video clips with administration demos
Miscue analysis tally form
Spanish version
English-Espanol Reading Inventory for the Classroom
Developed to meet the demand for K-12 teachers to assess Spanish-speaking students in their native tongue
Assesses competency in English and Spanish
Valuable tool in ESL instruction
Teacher-Made Reading Inventories
Reflect the material used in the classroom-provide a direct link between evaluation and instruction.
See green hand-out for instructions on how to construct a Reading Inventory
Norm-Referenced Reading Test Examples:
Test of Early Reading Ability, 3rd Ed.
Purpose of the TERA 3:
Screening/measuring the emerging reading ability of young children
Content Areas of TERA 3:
Alphabet, conventions, and meaning
Administration Time:
20-30 minutes
Age Levels:
3.5 years to 8.5 years
Suitable for:
Students with mild and moderate disabilities, including learning disabilities, behavior disorders, educable mental retardation, physical impairments, and hearing impairments
Standard scores, percentile ranks, and normal curve equivalents (NCEs)
Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests:
Purpose of WRMT:
To diagnose reading achievement
Content Areas:
Visual-auditory learning, letter identification, word identification, word attack, and word and passage comprehension
Administration Time:
10-30 minutes
Age Levels:
5 years to retirement
Suitable for:
Students with mild disabilities including learning disabilities, behavior disorders, sensory impairments, and physical disabilities
Age and grade percentile ranks, standard scores, NCEs, and age and grade equivalents
Other Norm-referenced Tests:
If a student misreads more than 10% of the words within an oral reading passage, the passage is:
a) too easy
b) at the student's instructional level
c) too difficult
What curriculum- based assessment technique involves informally testing word prediction abilities to measure comprehension skills and the way students use cues to identify words?
2) What specific curriculum-based assessment techniques did we discuss today? Which of these would you most prefer to use in your classroom? Why?
Scoring a Miscue Analysis
Mark mispronunciations, repetitions, omissions, and insertions as errors.
Count the number of words in the passage. Then count the number of errors made. Find the percentage of words missed.
Error rates of 10% or higher indicate that the passage is too difficult or frustrating for the student. When this happens, evaluator should repeat the analysis with an easier passage.
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