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bauhause. (1919-1933)

il cui nome completo era Staatliches Bauhaus, fu una scuola di architettura, arte e design in Germania.

joshua veronesi

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of bauhause. (1919-1933)

a new way to make artists. bauhaus little anticipation berlin bauhause's movements Vassily Kandinsky drawing example 1915 1920 1925 1930 1035 1940 1945 weimar 1919-1925 dessau 1925-1932 berlino 1932-1933 Bauhaus , il cui nome completo era Staatliches Bauhaus, fu una scuola di architettura, arte e design della Germania che operò a Weimar dal 1919 al 1925, a Dessau dal 1925 al 1932 e a Berlino dal 1932 al 1933.

Il termine Bauhaus era stato ideato da Walter Gropius e richiamava il termine medievale Bauhütte che indicava la loggia dei muratori.

Erede delle avanguardie anteguerra, fu una scuola, ma rappresentò anche il punto di riferimento fondamentale per tutti i movimenti d'innovazione nel campo del design e dell'architettura legati al razionalismo ed al funzionalismo, facenti parte del cosiddetto movimento moderno.

I suoi insegnanti, appartenenti a diverse nazionalità, furono figure di primissimo piano della cultura europea e l'esperienza didattica della scuola influirà profondamente sull'insegnamento artistico e tecnico fino ad oggi. La scuola interruppe le sue attività con l'avvento del nazismo. Il Bauhaus è stato un momento cruciale nel dibattito novecentesco del rapporto tra tecnologia e cultura. Bauhause, whose full name was Staatliches Bauhaus, was a school of architecture, art and design in Germany ,that operated from 1919 to 1925 in weimar , Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933.

The term Bauhaus was designed by Walter Gropius and recalled the medieval term Bauhütte indicating the lodge of masons.

Heir of the pre-war vanguard, was a school, but also represented the reference point for all movements of innovation in the field of design and architecture related to rationalism and functionalism, part of the so-called modern movement.

His teachers belonging to different nationalities, were figures of the foreground of European culture and the learning experience proposed will profoundly affect teaching and how to learn the art at school. The school stopped its activities with the rise of Nazism. The Bauhaus was a crucial moment in twentieth-century discussion of the relationship between technology and culture. Example of building
designed in bauhause. plan + axonometric projection. model The school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919 as a merger of the Grand Ducal School of Arts and Crafts and the Weimar Academy of Fine Art. Its roots lay in the arts and crafts school founded by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1906 and directed by Belgian Art Nouveau architect Henry van de Velde. When van de Velde was forced to resign in 1915 because he was Belgian, he suggested Gropius, Hermann Obrist and August Endell as possible successors. In 1919, after delays caused by the destruction of World War I and a lengthy debate over who should head the institution and the socio-economic meanings of a reconciliation of the fine arts and the applied arts (an issue which remained a defining one throughout the school's existence), Gropius was made the director of a new institution integrating the two called the Bauhaus. In the pamphlet for an April 1919 exhibition entitled "Exhibition of Unknown Architects", Gropius proclaimed his goal as being "to create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist." Gropius' neologism Bauhaus references both building and the Bauhütte, a premodern guild of stonemasons. The early intention was for the Bauhaus to be a combined architecture school, crafts school, and academy of the arts. In 1919 Swiss painter Johannes Itten, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus. By the following year their ranks had grown to include German painter, sculptor and designer Oskar Schlemmer who headed the theater workshop, and Swiss painter Paul Klee, joined in 1922 by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. A tumultuous year at the Bauhaus, 1922 also saw the move of Dutch painter Theo van Doesburg to Weimar to promote De Stijl ("The Style"), and a visit to the Bauhaus by Russian Constructivist artist and architect El Lissitzky.

The main building of the Bauhaus-University Weimar (built 1904–1911, designed by Henry van de Velde to house the sculptors’ studio at the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School. Designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996).
Foyer of the Bauhaus-University Weimar
From 1919 to 1922 the school was shaped by the pedagogical and aesthetic ideas of Johannes Itten, who taught the Vorkurs or 'preliminary course' that was the introduction to the ideas of the Bauhaus. Itten was heavily influenced in his teaching by the ideas of Franz Cižek and Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel. He was also influenced in respect to aesthetics by the work of the Blaue Reiter group in Munich as well as the work of Austrian Expressionist Oskar Kokoschka. The influence of German Expressionism favoured by Itten was analogous in some ways to the fine arts side of the ongoing debate. This influence culminated with the addition of Der Blaue Reiter founding member Wassily Kandinsky to the faculty and ended when Itten resigned in late 1922. Itten was replaced by the Hungarian designer László Moholy-Nagy, who rewrote the Vorkurs with a leaning towards the New Objectivity favored by Gropius, which was analogous in some ways to the applied arts side of the debate. Although this shift was an important one, it did not represent a radical break from the past so much as a small step in a broader, more gradual socio-economic movement that had been going on at least since 1907 when van de Velde had argued for a craft basis for design while Hermann Muthesius had begun implementing industrial prototypes.
Gropius was not necessarily against Expressionism, and in fact himself in the same 1919 pamphlet proclaiming this "new guild of craftsmen, without the class snobbery," described "painting and sculpture rising to heaven out of the hands of a million craftsmen, the crystal symbol of the new faith of the future." By 1923 however, Gropius was no longer evoking images of soaring Romanesque cathedrals and the craft-driven aesthetic of the "Völkisch movement", instead declaring "we want an architecture adapted to our world of machines, radios and fast cars." Gropius argued that a new period of history had begun with the end of the war. He wanted to create a new architectural style to reflect this new era. His style in architecture and consumer goods was to be functional, cheap and consistent with mass production. To these ends, Gropius wanted to reunite art and craft to arrive at high-end functional products with artistic pretensions. The Bauhaus issued a magazine called Bauhaus and a series of books called "Bauhausbücher". Since the Weimar Republic lacked the quantity of raw materials available to the United States and Great Britain, it had to rely on the proficiency of a skilled labor force and an ability to export innovative and high quality goods. Therefore designers were needed and so was a new type of art education. The school's philosophy stated that the artist should be trained to work with the industry.
Weimar was in the German state of Thuringia, and the Bauhaus school received state support from the Social Democrat-controlled Thuringian state government. The school in Weimar experienced political pressure from conservative circles in Thuringian politics, increasingly so after 1923 as political tension rose. One condition placed on the Bauhaus in this new political environment was the exhibition of work undertaken at the school. This condition was met in 1923 with the Baushaus' exhibition of the experimental Haus am Horn. In February 1924, the Social Democrats lost control of the state parliament to the Nationalists.[citation needed] The Ministry of Education placed the staff on six-month contracts and cut the school's funding in half. On 26 December 1924 the Bauhaus issued a press release and setting the closure of the school for the end of March 1925. At this point they had already been looking for alternative sources of funding. After the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, a school of industrial design with teachers and staff less antagonistic to the conservative political regime remained in Weimar. This school was eventually known as the Technical University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, and in 1996 changed its name to Bauhaus-University Weimar. weimar Gropius's design for the Dessau facilities was a return to the futuristic Gropius of 1914 that had more in common with the International style lines of the Fagus Factory than the stripped down Neo-classical of the Werkbund pavilion or the Völkisch Sommerfeld House.The Dessau years saw a remarkable change in direction for the school. According to Elaine Hoffman, Gropius had approached the Dutch architect Mart Stam to run the newly founded architecture program, and when Stam declined the position, Gropius turned to Stam's friend and colleague in the ABC group, Hannes Meyer.
Meyer became director when Gropius resigned in February 1928, and brought the Bauhaus its two most significant building commissions, both of which still exist: five apartment buildings in the city of Dessau, and the headquarters of the Federal School of the German Trade Unions (ADGB) in Bernau. Meyer favored measurements and calculations in his presentations to clients, along with the use of off-the-shelf architectural components to reduce costs, and this approach proved attractive to potential clients. The school turned its first profit under his leadership in 1929.
But Meyer also generated a great deal of conflict. As a radical functionalist, he had no patience with the aesthetic program, and forced the resignations of Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, and other long-time instructors. As a vocal Communist, he encouraged the formation of a communist student organization. In the increasingly dangerous political atmosphere, this became a threat to the existence of the Dessau school. Gropius fired him in the summer of 1930. The Dressau city council attempted to convince Gropius to return as head of the school, but Gropius instead suggested Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Mies was appointed in 1930, and immediately interviewed each student, dismissing those that he deemed uncommitted. Mies halted the school's manufacture of goods so that the school could focus on teaching. Mies appointed no new faculty other than his close confidant Lilly Reich. By 1931, the National Socialist German Workers' Party was starting to gain influence and control in German politics. They gained control of the Dressau City Council and moved to close the school. dessau In late 1932, Mies rented a derelict factory in Berlin to use as the new Bauhaus with his own money. The students and faculty rehabilitated the building, painting the interior white. The school operated for ten months without further interference from the Nazi Party. In 1933, the Gestapo closed down the Berlin school. Mies protested the decision, eventually speaking to the head of the Gestapo, who agreed to allow the school to re-open. However, shortly after receiving a letter permitting the opening of the Bauhaus, Mies and the other faculty agreed to voluntarily shut down the school.
Although neither the Nazi Party nor Hitler himself had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in 1933, Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg had already labeled the Bauhaus "un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs. Increasingly through the early 1930s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for communists and social liberals. Indeed, a number of communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union when he was fired in 1930.
Even before the Nazis came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus had increased. The Nazi movement, from nearly the start, denounced the Bauhaus for its "degenerate art", and the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism." Despite Gropius's protestations that as a war veteran and a patriot his work had no subversive political intent, the Berlin Bauhaus was pressured to close in April 1933. Emigrants did succeed, however, in spreading the concepts of the Bauhaus to other countries, including the “New Bauhaus” of Chicago: Mies decided to emigrate to the United States for the directorship of the School of Architecture at the Armour Institute (now IIT) in Chicago and to seek building commissions. Curiously, however, some Bauhaus influences lived on in Nazi Germany. When Hitler's chief engineer, Fritz Todt, began opening the new autobahn (highways) in 1935, many of the bridges and service stations were "bold examples of modernism" – among those submitting designs was Mies van der Rohe. Alla fine del 1932, Mies affittò una fabbrica abbandonata a Berlino, da utilizzare come nuovo Bauhaus con i suoi soldi. Gli studenti e docenti riabilitarono l'edificio, dipingendo l'interno di bianco. La scuola operò per dieci mesi senza ulteriori interferenze del Partito nazista. Nel 1933, la Gestapo chiudette la scuola di Berlino. Mies protestò la decisione, alla fine parlando con il capo della Gestapo, gli fece accettare la proposta di riaprire la scuola. Tuttavia, poco dopo aver ricevuto una lettera che consente l'apertura del Bauhaus, Mies e la facoltà hanno chiuso la scuola definitivamente.
Sebbene né il partito nazista, né lo stesso Hitler avevano una politica architettonica definita, prima che salì al potere nel 1933, scrittori nazisti come Wilhelm Frick e Alfred Rosenberg avevano già etichettato il Bauhaus come "non-tedesco" e criticarono i suoi stili modernisti, generando volutamente polemica pubblica su questioni come i tetti piani. Sempre nei primi anni del 1930, il Bauhau è utilizzato come copertura per i comunisti e i liberali sociali. In effetti, un certo numero di studenti comunisti fedeli al Meyer si trasferì in Unione Sovietica quando fù licenziato nel 1930.
Anche prima che i nazisti salirono al potere, la pressione politica sul Bauhaus era aumentata. Il movimento nazista,quasi da subito, ha denunciato il Bauhaus per la sua "arte degenerata".Il regime nazista era determinato a reprimere quello che vide come le influenze straniere, probabilmente ebrei di "modernismo cosmopolita". Nonostante le proteste di Gropius che, come veterano di guerra e patriota, enunciava che il suo lavoro non aveva alcun intento politico sovversivo, il Bauhaus di Berlinon fù costretto a chiudere nel mese di aprile del 1933. Gli emigranti riuscirono, però, a diffondere i concetti del Bauhaus in altri paesi, tra cui il "New Bauhaus" di Chicago: Mies decise di emigrare negli Stati Uniti per la direzione della Scuola di Architettura presso l'Istituto Armour (ora IIT) a Chicago e di cercare commissioni edilizie. Curiosamente, tuttavia, alcune influenze Bauhaus continuarono a vivere nella Germania nazista. Quando l'ingegnere capo di Hitler, Fritz Todt, cominciò ad aprire la nuova autostrada (autostrade) nel 1935, molti dei ponti e stazioni di servizio erano "esempi audaci del modernismo" - tra i disegni o modelli che presentarono c'era la firma di Mies van der Rohe. in italiano: in english: bauhause's principals Walter Groupius HENNES
MEYER Ludwig Mies
van der Rohe 1 2 WALTER GROPIUS 3 1927 1919 1930 La scuola fu fondata da Walter Gropius a Weimar nel 1919 come fusione della Scuola Granducale di Arti e Mestieri e l'Accademia di Belle Arti di Weimar. Le sue radici affondavano nella scuola di arti e mestieri fondata dal Granduca di Sassonia-Weimar-Eisenach nel 1906 e diretto dal belga architetto del liberty di Henry van de Velde. Quando van de Velde è stato costretto a dimettersi nel 1915 perché era belga, ha suggerito Gropius, Hermann Obrist e agosto Endell come possibili successori. Nel 1919, dopo i ritardi causati dalla distruzione della prima guerra mondiale e un lungo dibattito su chi dovrebbe dirigere l'istituzione socio-economicha, significante di una riconciliazione delle belle arti e delle arti applicate (una questione che è rimasta una definizione in tutto il tempo di esistenza della scuola), Gropius è stato fatto direttore di una nuova istituzione che integra le due,chiamato il Bauhaus. Nel opuscolo per una mostra 1919 aprile dal titolo "Mostra degli Architetti Sconosciuti", Gropius ha proclamato il suo obiettivo come: " creare una nuova corporazione degli artigiani, senza distinzioni di classe che sollevano una barriera arrogante tra artigiano e artista. " Con un neologismo Gropius fece riferimento alla Bauhütte, una gilda premoderna di scalpellini. L'intenzione iniziale era per il Bauhaus di essere una scuola di architettura combinando scuola di artigianato e accademia delle belle arti. Nel 1919 il pittore svizzero Johannes Itten, il pittore tedesco-americano Lyonel Feininger, e scultore tedesco Gerhard Marcks, insieme a Gropius, composero la facoltà del Bauhaus. L'anno successivo i loro ranghi era cresciuto fino a includere il pittore tedesco, scultore e designer Oskar Schlemmer che ha guidato il laboratorio teatrale e pittore svizzero Paul Klee, uniti nel 1922 da pittore russo Wassily Kandinsky. Un anno tumultuoso al Bauhaus del 1922 ha visto anche il passaggio del pittore olandese Theo van Doesburg a Weimar per promuovere De Stijl ("lo stile"), e una visita al Bauhaus dal russo artista costruttivista e architetto El Lissitzky.

L'edificio principale del Bauhaus-University Weimar (1904-1911 costruito, progettato da
Henry van de Velde per ospitare studio di scultori "presso la Scuola d'Arte granducale sassone.
Designato come un patrimonio mondiale dell'UNESCO nel 1996).

Foyer del Bauhaus-University Weimar
Dal 1919 al 1922 la scuola è stata modellata dalle idee pedagogiche ed estetiche di Johannes Itten, che ha insegnato il Vorkurs o 'corso preliminare' che era l'introduzione alle idee della Bauhaus. [9] Itten è stato fortemente influenzato nel suo insegnamento dal idee di Franz Cizek e Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel. E 'stato anche influenzato in relazione all'estetica dal lavoro del gruppo Blaue Reiter a Monaco di Baviera così come il lavoro di espressionista austriaco Oskar Kokoschka. L'influenza dell'espressionismo tedesco favorito da Itten era analoga per certi versi a lato di belle arti del dibattito in corso. Questa influenza è culminata con l'aggiunta di Der Blaue Reiter membro fondatore Wassily Kandinsky alla facoltà e si è conclusa quando Itten è dimesso alla fine del 1922. Itten è stata sostituita dalla stilista ungherese László Moholy-Nagy, che ha riscritto i Vorkurs con una propensione alla Nuova Oggettività favorita da Gropius, che era in qualche modo analogo a lato arti applicate del dibattito. Anche se questo cambiamento è stato un anno importante, non rappresentava una rottura radicale con il passato, quanto un piccolo passo in un più ampio, più graduale socio-economico movimento che aveva in corso almeno dal 1907, quando van de Velde ha sostenuto per una base per la progettazione di imbarcazioni, mentre Hermann Muthesius aveva iniziato ad attuare prototipi industriali. [11]
Gropius non è necessariamente contro l'espressionismo, e di fatto se stesso nello stesso 1919 opuscolo proclamare questa "nuova gilda di artigiani, senza lo snobismo di classe," descritto "la pittura e la scultura che sale al cielo dalle mani di milioni di artigiani, il simbolo di cristallo della nuova fede del futuro. " Nel 1923 tuttavia, Gropius non era più evocando immagini di svettanti cattedrali romaniche e l'artigianato-driven estetici del "movimento Völkisch", dichiara invece "vogliamo un'architettura adatta al nostro mondo di macchine, radio e macchine veloci". [12] Gropius ha sostenuto che un nuovo periodo della storia era iniziata con la fine della guerra. Voleva creare un nuovo stile architettonico per riflettere questa nuova era. Il suo stile di architettura e beni di consumo è stato quello di essere funzionale, a buon mercato e in linea con la produzione di massa. A tal fine, Gropius voleva riunire arte e artigianato per arrivare a prodotti funzionali di fascia alta con pretese artistiche. Il Bauhaus ha pubblicato una rivista chiamata Bauhaus e una serie di libri chiamati "Bauhausbücher". Poiché la Repubblica di Weimar non aveva la quantità di materie prime disponibili per gli Stati Uniti e la Gran Bretagna, ha dovuto contare sulla competenza di una forza lavoro qualificata e la capacità di esportare prodotti innovativi e di qualità. Pertanto i progettisti sono stati necessari e quindi era un nuovo tipo di educazione artistica. La filosofia della scuola ha dichiarato che l'artista deve essere addestrati a lavorare con l'industria.
Weimar era nello stato tedesco della Turingia, e la scuola del Bauhaus ricevuto aiuti di Stato dal socialdemocratico controllato governo dello stato di Turingia. La scuola di Weimar subito pressioni politiche da ambienti conservatori in politica Turingia, sempre di più dopo il 1923, come tensione politica è aumentato. Una condizione posta sul Bauhaus in questo nuovo ambiente politico è stata la mostra del lavoro svolto a scuola. Questa condizione è soddisfatta nel 1923 con la mostra Baushaus 'dei sperimentali Haus am Horn. [13] Nel febbraio 1924, i socialdemocratici perso il controllo del parlamento dello Stato per i nazionalisti. [Citazione necessaria] Il Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione posto il personale sei mesi di contratti e tagliare i fondi della scuola a metà. Il 26 dicembre 1924 il Bauhaus ha emesso un comunicato stampa e l'impostazione della chiusura della scuola per la fine di marzo 1925. [14] [15] A questo punto erano già stati alla ricerca di fonti alternative di finanziamento. Dopo il Bauhaus si trasferisce a Dessau, una scuola di design industriale con gli insegnanti e il personale meno antagoniste al regime politico conservatore rimasto in Weimar. Questa scuola è stata poi conosciuta come la Technical University di Architettura e Ingegneria Civile, e nel 1996 ha cambiato il suo nome in Bauhaus-University Weimar. • Klee and Kandinskij’s
lessons Laboratories • Weaving workshop • Laboratory of sculpture
wood and stone: vorkurs

the preparatory course lasted six months and was a preparation of students to the perception and expression of art.
During the first years, to 1923, this course was directed by Johannes Itten: he taught art as a true lifestyle (style of dress, body care, feeding care, ecc).
When the school was transfer in Dessau, the preparatory course was managed by Josef Albers and Moholy-Nagy. Albers’s lessons was abuot the different materials and the costruction techniques, Nagy’s lessons was about the space composition.

When the school was transfer in Dessau, the preparatory course was managed by Josef Albers and Moholy-Nagy. Albers’s lessons was abuot the different materials and the costruction techniques, Nagy’s lessons was about the space composition.

Under the direction of Hannes, the basic training was enriched with the lessons about about humans and nude. in this laboratory were mad plaster sculpture, work in carving, masks and puppets for the theatre lab, tombstones, one monument and a lot of toys.
The toys was the master prodoct of the bauhaus. The weaving workshop was a sort of waste: in this laboratory work only the womans, beacause these weren’t a lot in the Bauhaus school. In the school, the womans number was less than half, because the woman was very underrated.

In this lab the womans took care of the coatings of furnitures, in collaboration with the furniture workshop, and in the production of tents. The apprentices could be formed only by master craftsmen; in fact, Gropius took on teachers craftsmen and artists.

In 1920 the council of masters decided that the preparatory course and the technical design were required, that the hours of work in the laboratories were six in one day and maintained that the teaching model art- teacher/crafts- teacher.

Over the years, depending on the directors the organization of the courses and the curriculum has undergone many changes.

In every lab there are a director, a teacher, students and some collaborators. The collaborators was students who work in the lab for eight hour and for this earning a salary.

The students paid independently their studies from the sale of items produced by the Bauhaus.

For Gropius and Meyer, the laboratories was a a necessary step for study architecture;
Mies van der Rohe made optional the preparatory course and the workshops, because he belive that this in not necessary for study architecture.

- Pottery workshop

this laboratory only existed in the Weimar school, because there weren’t enough money to support it.
For this, when the school was transfer in Dessau, the pottery workshop didn’t reopen.

this workshop was born in collaboration with various craftsmen in ceramics, in particular Max Krehan.
He had a little laboratory into the woods, where he lived with some student in contact with nature.
here, they lived on what they could procure and cultivated.In collaboration with two apprentices, Gropius produced a set of cooking utensils in ceramic. Paul Klee’s lesson was based on the study of the proportions, the reflected imagines, the forms and the primary colors. In 1922 there is another course about the color’s theory.

Kandinskij taught a course about the colors composition, their perception and their effects in their overlappings.
We can subdivide his exercises in: colors system and sequence, correspondence of color and shape, relationship between colors and color and space.

Both teacher, when Hannes directed the school, teaching in a course about painting. • Course about Human in this course teaching Oskar Schlemmer and it was subdivided in three parts:
- theory of proportions and movement
- the study of psycology
- the study of filosofy and the spirit history Joshua Di Simone;
Giulia Magarotto.
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