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Aerobic Training Adaptations

KIN 416 - Berry College - Dept. of Kinesiology
by

David Elmer

on 17 March 2016

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Transcript of Aerobic Training Adaptations

Aerobic Training Adaptations
cardiac adaptations
changes in architecture -
increased left ventricular volume and wall thickness
Ehsani et al. 1991
decreases in heart rate
at maximal exercise - increased cardiac output
(even a slight decrease in max HR)
bradycardia
resting HR below 60 bpm
Tinken, et al. 2010
respiratory adaptations
doesn't usually limit exercise, so adaptations are minimal to moderate at best
increases in VO max
2
.
heavy genetic component
heritability of VO max when untrained - 50%
2
heritability of training gains in VO max - 50%
2
Bouchard, et al.
20 weeks of training
2.5x more variability in adaptation between families than within families
"non-responders"
but there's a huge training component too!
VO = Q x a-vO d
2
2
Q = HR x SV
= increases in stroke volume
preload increases
contractility increases
(most likely)
afterload decreases
+
bioenergetic changes
increase in mitochondrial density
increase in capillary density
increases blood flow
decreases oxygen diffusion distance
slows rate of blood flow
increases ability to consume oxygen
ability to consume oxygen is usually better than the ability to deliver oxygen
however
increases in VO max =
2
50%
50%
increases in performance also due to structural and biochemical changes
increase in myoglobin
better oxygen uptake
fiber type transition
type I
type IIA
type IIX
fibers become more efficient with training
this continues for years
however
there is no evidence for a total shift to all type I fibers
increases in as little as 5 days
may increase 50-100% in 6 weeks
reduces strain on ATP-PC system
fibers must be recruited in order to adapt
intensity-dependent adaptations
exercise duration (min)
exercise duration (min)
reduces oxygen deficit
increases in FFA utilization
better FFA
transport
facilitated by increased capillary density
better uptake into mitochondria
increases in capacity for beta-oxidation
due to increase in enzymes that results from increase in number of mitochondria
decreases reliance on carbohydrates
preserves glycogen stores
spares blood glucose
increased glycogen stores
anti-oxidant capacity
muscular adaptations
1.
2.
central command
peripheral feedback
how does endurance training alter cardiac and ventilatory responses to exercise?
principle of specificity:
acid-base balance
anti-oxidants work to neutralize free radicals
highly reactive molecules with an unpaired (free) electron that damage proteins, membranes, and DNA
exercise increases endogenous anti-oxidants in trained muscle
free radicals play a role in the response to inflammation
potentially a vital link between aerobic exercise and the prevention of chronic disease
potential increase in muscle buffering capacity
trained muscles produce less lactate, which results in a reduction in exercise acidosis
greater use of fats
more mito = greater chance pyruvate is used to produce aerobic energy
increased shuttling of NADH to electron transport chain
LDH enzyme shift to a type that has a lower affinity for converting pyruvate to lactate
"feed forward" mechanism
with training, reduced neural requirement to sustain a particular intensity
less sympathetic nervous system response, reduced cardiorespiratory response
"feedback" mechanism
a lesser disturbance of homeostasis, mostly due to increased mitochondria, reduces the feedback signal from the muscles that increase the cardiorespiratory response
increase in the intensity at which lactate threshold is reached
one of the best predictors of aerobic performance!
neural
improved metabolic capacity of the motor cortex
McCloskey, et al. 2000
promotes neural plasticity
hemoglobin concentration
blood volume
improved blood vessel dilation in vessels supplying working muscles
varied response
unchanged - slight decrease in trained runners
briefly increased by living/training at altitude
adaptation not sustained after return to sea level
increased with training
initial increases due to increased plasma volume (2-4 weeks)
after initial plasma volume expansion, increased blood volume is due to both increases in red blood cells and plasma
Adkins, et al. 2006
reduced H-reflex excitability threshold and increased H-reflex amplitude
increased motorneuron excitability
Vila-Cha, et al. 2012
Full transcript