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The Wonderful World of Cells
Transcript of The Wonderful World of Cells
Breuana Light Skyler Dickson Organelles of the Plant and Animal cells, and their functions Animal Cells Plant Cells Prokaryotic v.s.
Eukaryiotic Cell Membrane Nucleus Cell Wall- The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae,
bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells. Cell membrane-is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the
cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents. A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste. Nuclear Membrane Vacuole Mitochondrion Ribosomes Golgi Body Centrosome Cytoplasm The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and
controls the cell's
It is commonly the most prominent organelle in the cell. The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. An organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell.
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A nuclear membrane is a double-layered lining that encloses a cell nucleus and allows certain molecules to pass through A nuclear membrane is a double-layered lining that encloses a cell nucleus and allows certain molecules to pass through An organelle near the nucleus of a cell that contains the centrioles (in animal cells) and from which the spindle fibers develop in cell division A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste. PROKARYOTIC • has no nucleus
• not membrane bound
• smaller than eukaryotic
• much more basic
• cell walls made of peptidoglycan
• DNA floats freely
• divides by binary fission
• all cells are unicellular
• only one chromosome (not a true, it is made of plasmids)
• lives in bacteria EUKARYOTIC • has a nucleus
• membrane bound organelles
• 10x bigger than a prokaryotic cell
• much more complex
• cell walls of normal substance
• DNA is held within the nucleus
• undergoes mitosis
• can be unicellular or multicellular
• has more than one chromosome
• is in animals and plants • they both have DNA
• they both have ribosomes
• they both have similar metabolism
• they are both amazingly diverse The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction. The round granular structure within the nucleus of a cell, and composed of protein and RNA. Nuclear membrane- The double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, separating the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm. Containing plastid found within the cells of plants and other photosynthetic eukaryotes. A spherical or rod-shaped organelle found within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It acts as the “powerhouse of the cell” as it generates most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the process of cellular respiration. Cytoplasm In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is that part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope. It is the jelly-like substance in a cell that contains the cytosol,
organelles, and inclusions, but not including the nucleus. In fact, the cytoplasm and the nucleus make up the protoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. A type of leucoplast found in the cytoplasm of a plant cell, and serves as storage organelle of amylopectin. The organelle located near the nucleus in the cytoplasm that divides and migrates to opposite poles of the cell during mitosis, and is involved in the formation of mitotic spindle, assembly of microtubules, and regulation of cell cycle progression; the region pertaining to the organelle. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a eukaryotic organelle made up of a system of membranous tubes and sacs, that is studded with ribosomes on its surface giving it a rough appearance under the microscope (hence its name). Imagine you are a microscopic, unicellular organism. Your whole body is one cel1.
This one cell must carry out all the functions needed to keep you alive. It must be
able to move, obtain food, reproduce, and respond to the environment. There are
many living organisms that consist of only one cell. What disadvantages do you
think they have, compared with multicellular organisms? (A part of) endoplasmic reticulum that is tubular in form (rather than sheet-like) and lacks ribosomes. Its functions include lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. Ribosomes Cell Wall Cell Membrane Vacuole Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Mitochondrion Smooth ER Rough ER Amyoplast Chloroplast Centrosome A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. The round granular structure within the nucleus of a cell, and composed of protein and RNA. Nucleolus (A part of) endoplasmic reticulum that is tubular in form (rather than sheet-like) and lacks ribosomes. Its functions include lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a eukaryotic organelle made up of a system of membranous tubes and sacs, that is studded with ribosomes on its surface giving it a rough appearance under the microscope (hence its name). Rough ER Smooth ER automobile industry, and his balanced springs, which are still part of some of the watches we wear. Hooke's Law and his combustion theory are still used by today's scientists. Who invented the cell theory? R O B E R T • H O O K E
Robert Hooke was perhaps one of the most important scientists from the 17th century. While his research and findings were often overshadowed by those of his rival Sir Isaac Newton, one cannot argue their importance in the development of fields such as physics, astronomy, biology, and medicine, to name a few.
One must realize that Robert Hooke's advances in the field of Microscopy and Astronomy opened doors which would one day lead to discoveries from scientists such as Dr. Edwin Hubble, and that some of his other inventions such as the universal joint, w hich is being used in the One could say he was England's equivalent of 14th century genius Leonardo da Vinci, that he was a true renaissance man who was constantly seeking answers to questions, and inventing new and ingenious scientific instruments. Hooke's inventions include the spring control of the balance wheel in watches, and the first reflecting telescope. Hooke also worked as an architect, although his dreams of redesigning London following the Great Fire of 1666 were brought down to smaller proportions. Alas, for all the genius and for all his triumphs, Hooke was a sickly, bitter man who's work had oft been at the source of others' successes, a man who spent his entire life alone, orphaned at the age of 13 following his father's suicide. To make matters worse, Hooke's one true love (Grace Hooke), also happened to be his niece, and the short while the two actually lived together at Hooke's home, there is no indication his love was reciprocated. Hooke died alone, his estate being sold at auction to an illiterate woman by the name of Elizabeth Stevens. • • • C E L L • T H E O R Y • • • The cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. He examined very thin slices of cork and saw billions of tiny pores that he remarked looked like the walled compartments of a honeycomb. Because of this association, Hooke called them cells, the name they still bear. However, Hooke did not know their real structure or function. Hooke's description of these cells (which were actually non-living cell walls) was published in Micrographia.. His cell observations gave no indication of the nucleus and other organelles found in most living cells. The first man to witness a live cell under a microscope was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who in 1674 described the algae Spirogyra and named the moving organisms animalcules, meaning "little animals".. Leeuwenhoek probably also saw bacteria. Cell theory was in contrast to the vitalism theories that had been proposed before the discovery of cells The idea that cells were separable into individual units was proposed by Ludolph Christian Treviranus and Johann Jacob Paul Moldenhawer. All of this finally led to Henri Dutrochet formulating one of the fundamental tenets of modern cell theory by declaring that "The cell is the fundamental element of organization"
The observations of Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, and others led to the development of the cell theory. The cell theory is a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things. The cell theory states:
• All living things are composed of cells.
• Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
• Cells arise from pre-existing cells. The cell theory holds true for all living things, no matter how big or small, or how simple or complex. Since according to research, cells are common to all living things, they can provide information about all life. And because all cells come from other cells, scientists can study cells to learn about growth, reproduction, and all other functions that living things perform. By learning about cells and how they function, you can learn about all types of living things.
Credit for developing cell theory is usually given to three scientists: Theodor Schwann, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, and Rudolf Virchow. In 1839, Schwann and Schleiden suggested that cells were the basic unit of life. Their theory accepted the first two tenets of modern cell theory (see next section, below). However the cell theory of Schleiden differed from modern cell theory in that it proposed a method of spontaneous crystallization that he called "Free Cell Formation". In 1858, Rudolf Virchow concluded that all cells come from pre-existing cells, thus completing the classical cell theory. Hooke drew an illustration of what he saw under the lens of his microscope. He called the holes of the cork cells, but they were non-living. The name, however, stuck. (a) Robert Hooke's drawing of his microscope, reproduced from a book he published in 1665. Light from an oil lamp was directed to the specimen through a water willed glass hole that acted as a condenser. The specimen was mounted on a pin, just below the tip of the microscope. The microscope was focused by moving down, using a screw held to the stand by a clamp. Among the many other illustrations in the book was a drawing of two slices of a piece of cork. (a) (b) (b) The structure of cork is revealed in more detail in a modern electron micrograph.
Hooke was the first to use the word "cells" to describe the tiny compartments that together make up an organism. The cells in these pieces of cork have died - all that remain are the outer walls. The living cell, however, is filled with a variety of substances, organized into distinct structures and carrying out a multitude of essential processes. To summarize the cell theory, all you have to know is: S U M M A R I Z E • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. • Cells arise from pre-existing cells
(in a process called cell-divison) • All living things are composed of cells. Yes, that could be the case as well.
Which leads us to.. Unicellular and Multicellular
Unicellular organisms cannot grow very large. Also, because they must take in all the materials they need through their cell membranes, most unicellular organisms can only live in watery, food-rich surroundings. Multicellular organisms have several advantages compared to unicellular living
things. They can live in a wide variety of environments. They are able to grow
very large - as large as a whale or a Douglas fir. Multiceliular animals can obtain their energy from a wide variety of foods. Their bodies are more complex. By specializing in particular functions, each cell in a multicellular organism can work much more efficiently than the cell of a unicellular organism, which must do every job itself. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells of a similar kind work closely
together, and are usually found grouped closely together in the body. Groups of
specialized cells, in turn, work in harmony with other groups. Unicellular organisms are.. bacteria, archaea, amoeba, yeasts, paramecia, cyanobacteria.. things like that! U N I C E L L U L A R All there is, really, is disadvantages. You're single celled.
You have no brain.
You have to do everything yourself.
If you got sick, or damaged your .. cell .. that would the end of you! One advantage might be that you're very simple.
You're not very hard to keep up with. Vice versa with multi-cellular. Humans are not unicellular. We are made of millions, upon millions of cells. We have all of the advantage!
Animals, primates, insects, trees.. all are multi-cellular! M U L T I - C E L L U L A R Multi-cellular organisms are the superior of the other types! These organisms have the advantage of having a brain, being cognitive of their surroundings,
being damaged isn't too severe,
they have specialized cells,
and they can live on their own. Humans are multi-cellular! We have brains, not nuclei!
We have arms and legs, no flagella!
Humans are the superior species of them all, because we can think for ourselves and we have evolved to lead out lives and fend for ourselves. Maybe the only disadvantage is that
we have to keep up with ourselves, and
we are extremely complex. f i n I worked all weekend on it! I hope it's okay! :3