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Transcript of Prehistoric Texans
on cave, ledges, or cliffs. petroglyphs are carvings made in the rock. Indians of the Paleolithic Era The earliest Texans followed mammoths across the high plains of Texas. To hunt they used spear pointed weapons. Later they would hunt big bison and use the method of chasing them over a cliff to kill them. They would often dry the animal meat with fat and dried berries. This was called pemmican. Indians of the Archaic Era The Archaic Era Indians invented a new weapon called the atlatl. This was stick about 2 feet long with a wooden hook at the end. It was used to throw at great force to injure and kill animals. How Indians Organized Their Cultures Bands: consists of two or more extended families that live together under one leader.
And extended family consists of parents, their children, and all the parent's grand children.
tribe: was a number of bands who followed the same leader and shared the same territory and culture. The Caddo People The Caddos
- Mississippian or Mound Builder Culture
- Organized into three confederacies
- Most advanced culture of all Texas Indians.
- They lived and farmed in small clearings in forests.
- Major crops included: corn, beans, squash, and sunflower seeds. - Cone shaped houses.
- Religion: Believed in one creator. Believed that Gods spoke to them through the chief. They also believed that other gods and spirits helped them in their daily lives.
- Daily Life: Caddo men worked along side the Caddo women. They hunted, made pottery, built homes, cooked, and farmed together.
- Appearance: Wore deer skin clothing in the summer and buffalo in the winter. Had tattooed bodies and faces. Also painted their faces during special occasions.
- They had an usual custom of greeting others by weeping or wailing loudly. The Atakapan - permanent houses
- grew corn
- hunting was important
- hunters and gatherers
- fished from canoes
- winter homes were dome shaped Southeastern Tribes Wichita Indians - shorter and darker than most Texas Indians
- men tattooed around their eyes, were nicknamed "raccoon eyes"
- women tattooed their bodies with zigzag lines, circles, and triangles
- tipis - they lived in tipis because during the winter the entire tribe packed up and traveled to hunt
- farmers The Plains People Tonkawas - war chiefs led them
- friendly people
- hunted buffalo
- buffalo was their main source of food and they used them to make clothes, tools, etc...
- later became hunter and gatherers Apaches - the Lipans
- fierce fighters
- each tribe had its own cheif
- deerskin clothing
- buffalo hids in the winter
- planted and lived in one place during the summer
- moved to follow the buffalo in the winter
- among the 1st to ride horses Kiowas - bitter enemies with the Comanches
- but later became allies
- celebrated the Sun Dance The Commanches - Excellent horsemen
- "warriors of the Plains"
- life was dependent on the buffalo
- lived in tipis
- women had short hair, while men wore their's long The Puebloan People Jumano Indians - farmers
- lived in pueblo villages made of adobe
- men did most of the farming
- "striped people" because they painted their
faces with long stripes Concho Indians - farmers
- Concho women did the farm work
- men hunted using bow and arrow
- lived in huts covered in grass or animal skins
- tribe "disappeared in the late 1600's Tiguas Indians - oldest group of Native Americans still living in Texas today.
- lived in the town Ysleta, Tx
- had a Kiva where the tribal council would meet
- blended into Spanish culture The Western Gulf People Coahuiltecans - lived in bands not tribes
- ate snakes, lizards, armadillos, worms, spiders...
- lived in dome shaped huts
- men hunted
- most Coahuiltecan's died from disease brought from the Spanish missionaries Karankawas - lived on the coast and fished
- traveled in dugout canoes
- communicated using smoke signals
- taller than most Texas Indians
- womena and men decorated their bodies and men pierced their lower lip and chest
- practiced ceremonial cannabalism Texas Indians Today
- about 100,000 Native Americans live in Texas today
- welfare or disease destroyed most early tribes
- most that survived were forced to settle on reservations
- Tigua Indians still have a tiny reserve in El Paso, Tx
- there are only a few reservations left in Texas