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PSYCHOLOGY

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by

Bam Abalos

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of PSYCHOLOGY

History of the Term:
- Greek for the
study of the soul.
Definition:
- The science of
human behavior
and
mental processes
.
t o d a y . . .
How can humans do horrible things like commit
suicide
or
torture other humans
?
DO WE HAVE
FREE WILL
, OR ARE WE DRIVEN BY OUR
ENVIRONMENT
,
BIOLOGY
, AND
UNCONSCIOUS INFLUENCES
?
What is
CONSCIOUSNESS
? or the notion of
SELF
?
Questions:
1. How do our
brains work
?
2. Why do we
behave the way we do
even when we don't want to?
3. What it means to be
thinking
, and
feeling
, and
alive
?

THE BEGINNINGS OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY
your actions
feelings, emotions, thoughts, problem solving, perception, and even the biological activities that maintain the body functions
Wilhelm Wundt
established the first Psychological laboratory
(Institute for Experimental Psychology)
at the
University of Liepzig in Germany
in
1879.
Due to the belief that
mind
and
behavior
could be the subject of
scientific analysis
.
Wundt's research focused on
senses
, especially
vision
.
He and his coworkers also studied
attention
,
emotion
, and
memory
.
INTROSPECTION
refers to the
observing
and
recording
the nature of one's own
perceptions
,
thoughts
, and
feelings
.
use of
senses
in understanding the information from the environment
arrangement of ideas
that result from thinking
a
state
of consciousness
Ex:
"The flash of flight is very bright."
"I was thinking of putting the lights off because it is very bright. "
"... but I am afraid of the dark."
Father of Psychology
Procedure:
He trained psychology students to make observations that were biased by personal interpretation or previous experience, and used the results to develop a theory of conscious thought.
Highly trained assistants would be given a stimulus such as a ticking metronome and would reflect on the experience. They would report what the stimulus made them think and feel. The same stimulus, physical surroundings and instructions were given to each person.
The procedure was proved
unworkable
because even after extensive training, different people produced very different introspections about simple sensory experiences, and few conclusions could be drawn from these differences.
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN PSYCHOLOGY
One way Wundt contributed to the development of psychology was to do his research in carefully controlled conditions, i.e.
experimental methods
.
Structuralism
Functionalism
Behaviorism
Gestalt Psychology
Psychoanalysis
He described this branch of psychology as the analysis of
mental structures
. A theory of
consciousness.
The leading proponent of this approach in the United States was
Edward Bradford Titchener
, a Cornell University psychologist who had been trained by Wundt.
This theory sought to identify the
components
(structure) of the mind (the mind is the key element to psychology at this point).
Structuralists believed that the way to learn about the brain and its functions was to break the mind down into its most
basic elements
. They believed,
the whole is equal to the sum of the parts
.
Example:
Analyzing the
taste
of lemonade (
perception
) into elements such as sweet, bitter, and cold (
sensation
).
It arose in the U.S. in the late 19th century as an
alternative to Structuralism.
Studying how the mind works so that an organism can
adapt to
and
function
in its environment.
By 1920, both structuralism and functionalism were displaced by three newer schools:
behaviorism
, Gestalt psychology and
psychoanalysis.
William James
, a distinguished psychologist at
Harvard University
, is considered to be the
founder
of Functional psychology.
The idea stemmed from
Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution
. Some psychologists argued that consciousness had
evolved
only because it
served some purpose
in guiding the individual's activities.
Since
structuralists
and
functionalists
still regarded psychology as the
science of conscious experience,
both of these schools lost dominance in psychology. However, both schools played important roles in the early development of 20th-century psychology. Because each viewpoint provided a
systematic approach to the field.
John B. Watson
, the founder of Behaviorism reacted against the view that conscious experience was the province of psychology.
The
study of behavior
without reference to consciousness.
According to Watson, for psychology to be a science,
psychological data
must be open to
public inspection
like the data of any other science.
Behavior is
public
; consciousness is
private
.
Watson and others attributing to behaviorism, argued that nearly all behavior is a result of
conditioning
and the environment shapes behavior by
reinforcing
specific habits.
Behaviorists tended to discuss psychological phenomenon in terms of
stimuli
and
responses
, giving rise to the term
stimulus-response (S-R) psychology
.

*Note: S-R psychology is
not a theory or perspective
but
a set of terms
that can be used to communicate psychological information.
About
1912
, at the same time that behaviorism was catching on in the United States,
Gestalt psychology
was appearing in
Germany
.
a German word meaning "
form
" or "
configuration
" which referred to the approach taken by
Max Wertheimer
and his colleagues
Kurt Koffka
and
Wolfgang Kohler.
The
Gestalt psychologists'
primary interest was
perception
, and they believed that perceptual experiences depend on the
patterns formed
by
stimuli
and on the
organization of experience.
What we
actually
see is
related
to the
background
against which an object appears, as well as to other aspects of the overall pattern of stimulation.
The whole is different from the sum of its parts, because the
whole

depends
on the
relationships among the parts
.
Among the key interests Gestalt psychologists were the
perception of motion
,
how people judge size
, and the
appearance of colors under changes in illumination.
These interests led them to a number of
perception-centered interpretations
of
learning
,
memory
, and
problem solving
that helped lay the groundwork for current research in
cognitive psychology
.
The Gestalt psychologists also influenced key founders of modern
social psychology
- including
Kurt Lewin
,
Solomon Asch
, and
Fritz Heider
- who expanded on Gestalt principles to understand
interpersonal phenomena
.
The process of imposing
meaning and structure
on incoming stimuli is
automatic
and
outside conscious awareness
, a Gestalt view that continues to infuse contemporary research on social cognition to this day.
It is both a
theory of personality
and a
method of psychotherapy
originated by
Sigmund Freud
around the turn of the 20th century.
The center of the theory is the concept of the
unconscious
- the
thoughts
,
attitudes
,
impulses
,
wishes
,
motivations
, and
emotions
of which we are
unaware
.
Freud believed that childhood's
unacceptable (forbidden or punished) wishes
are driven out of conscious awareness and become
part of the unconscious
, where they continue to
influence
our
thoughts
,
feelings
, and
actions.
Unconscious
thoughts are expressed in
dreams
,
slips of the tongue
, and
physical mannerisms.
Free association
is a method used by Frued in his therapy in which the patient was instructed to say whatever comes to mind as a way of
bringing unconscious wishes
into
awareness.
In classical Freudian theory, the motivations behind unconscious wishes almost always involved
sex
and
aggression
.
Though contemporary psychologists do not accept Freud's theory in general, they tend to agree that people's
ideas
,
goals
, and
motives
can at times operate
outside conscious awareness
.
Full transcript