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Transcript of PSYCHOLOGY
- Greek for the
study of the soul.
- The science of
t o d a y . . .
How can humans do horrible things like commit
torture other humans
DO WE HAVE
, OR ARE WE DRIVEN BY OUR
? or the notion of
1. How do our
2. Why do we
behave the way we do
even when we don't want to?
3. What it means to be
THE BEGINNINGS OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY
feelings, emotions, thoughts, problem solving, perception, and even the biological activities that maintain the body functions
established the first Psychological laboratory
(Institute for Experimental Psychology)
University of Liepzig in Germany
Due to the belief that
could be the subject of
Wundt's research focused on
He and his coworkers also studied
refers to the
the nature of one's own
in understanding the information from the environment
arrangement of ideas
that result from thinking
"The flash of flight is very bright."
"I was thinking of putting the lights off because it is very bright. "
"... but I am afraid of the dark."
Father of Psychology
He trained psychology students to make observations that were biased by personal interpretation or previous experience, and used the results to develop a theory of conscious thought.
Highly trained assistants would be given a stimulus such as a ticking metronome and would reflect on the experience. They would report what the stimulus made them think and feel. The same stimulus, physical surroundings and instructions were given to each person.
The procedure was proved
because even after extensive training, different people produced very different introspections about simple sensory experiences, and few conclusions could be drawn from these differences.
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN PSYCHOLOGY
One way Wundt contributed to the development of psychology was to do his research in carefully controlled conditions, i.e.
He described this branch of psychology as the analysis of
. A theory of
The leading proponent of this approach in the United States was
Edward Bradford Titchener
, a Cornell University psychologist who had been trained by Wundt.
This theory sought to identify the
(structure) of the mind (the mind is the key element to psychology at this point).
Structuralists believed that the way to learn about the brain and its functions was to break the mind down into its most
. They believed,
the whole is equal to the sum of the parts
of lemonade (
) into elements such as sweet, bitter, and cold (
It arose in the U.S. in the late 19th century as an
alternative to Structuralism.
Studying how the mind works so that an organism can
in its environment.
By 1920, both structuralism and functionalism were displaced by three newer schools:
, Gestalt psychology and
, a distinguished psychologist at
, is considered to be the
of Functional psychology.
The idea stemmed from
Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution
. Some psychologists argued that consciousness had
only because it
served some purpose
in guiding the individual's activities.
still regarded psychology as the
science of conscious experience,
both of these schools lost dominance in psychology. However, both schools played important roles in the early development of 20th-century psychology. Because each viewpoint provided a
systematic approach to the field.
John B. Watson
, the founder of Behaviorism reacted against the view that conscious experience was the province of psychology.
study of behavior
without reference to consciousness.
According to Watson, for psychology to be a science,
must be open to
like the data of any other science.
; consciousness is
Watson and others attributing to behaviorism, argued that nearly all behavior is a result of
and the environment shapes behavior by
Behaviorists tended to discuss psychological phenomenon in terms of
, giving rise to the term
stimulus-response (S-R) psychology
*Note: S-R psychology is
not a theory or perspective
a set of terms
that can be used to communicate psychological information.
, at the same time that behaviorism was catching on in the United States,
was appearing in
a German word meaning "
" or "
" which referred to the approach taken by
and his colleagues
primary interest was
, and they believed that perceptual experiences depend on the
and on the
organization of experience.
against which an object appears, as well as to other aspects of the overall pattern of stimulation.
The whole is different from the sum of its parts, because the
relationships among the parts
Among the key interests Gestalt psychologists were the
perception of motion
how people judge size
, and the
appearance of colors under changes in illumination.
These interests led them to a number of
that helped lay the groundwork for current research in
The Gestalt psychologists also influenced key founders of modern
- who expanded on Gestalt principles to understand
The process of imposing
meaning and structure
on incoming stimuli is
outside conscious awareness
, a Gestalt view that continues to infuse contemporary research on social cognition to this day.
It is both a
theory of personality
method of psychotherapy
around the turn of the 20th century.
The center of the theory is the concept of the
of which we are
Freud believed that childhood's
unacceptable (forbidden or punished) wishes
are driven out of conscious awareness and become
part of the unconscious
, where they continue to
thoughts are expressed in
slips of the tongue
is a method used by Frued in his therapy in which the patient was instructed to say whatever comes to mind as a way of
bringing unconscious wishes
In classical Freudian theory, the motivations behind unconscious wishes almost always involved
Though contemporary psychologists do not accept Freud's theory in general, they tend to agree that people's
can at times operate
outside conscious awareness