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The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Transcript of The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
The Great Barrier Reef
Queensland Coast, Australia
Covers 344,400 km2
Designated Marine Park 1975
Includes the worlds largest coral reef ecosystem
3000 coral reefs
600 continental islands
150 inshore mangrove islands
Designated World Heritage Site 1981
– included islands originally excluded from the marine park
EMC provides A$1 billion revenue for GBRMPA -- 18% of operating budget
Shared goals of natural resource management and tourism
more areas to protect biodiversity and ecosystems
conservation, monitoring of visitors to protected areas
generating income for the surrounding community
creating ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable tourism
Permit system for all tourist operations
Effects split 2 ways: environmental and cultural
Tourism and Indigenous Populations
55,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people within park's catchment area
cultural connection: fishing, hunting (turtles and dugong) and ancestral linkages
displacement of communities
co-management as a solution?
-- Girringun Aboriginal Corporation
-- Failed due to hunting practices conflicting with interests of tourist industry
Fishing: Commercial and Recreational
Highly important for the economy: A$140 million/yr from commercial and A$153 million from recreational fishing
Regulated through zoning: only certain fishing methods and activities allowed in certain areas (67% of GBRMP open to fishing activities)
Catch size limits, species restrictions, and seasonal restrictions regulated by Queensland Government – zones by the GBRMPA
Environmental impacts of fishing in the GBRMP poorly understood
GBRMP faces unique challenges as (a) a marine park, (b) a domain of indigenous communities, and (c) a subject of overlapping jurisdictions
additional external pressures on park ecosystem (climate change, mining, onshore developments and runoffs)
joint responsibility of GBRMPA and Queensland Government to balance the goals of economic development with the need for social justice and environmental sustainability
Bergin, A. (1993) ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander interest in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Research Paper No.31) by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Brodie, J. & Waterhouse, J. (2012) A Critical Review of Environmental Management of the ‘Not so Great’ Barrier Reef. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 104-105. pp1-22
Crass, M, H. [Australian Minister for the Environment and Conservation 1972-75] (1975) Ministerial Address to Parliament on the Opening of the Second Reading Debate on the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975. Given on 22nd May 1975. Accessed via http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id%3A%22hansard80%2Fhansardr80%2F1975-05-22%2F0137%22 on 4th November 2013.
Coghlan A., 2012, ‘Linking natural resource management to tourist satisfaction: a study of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(1), 41-58
Day, J. C. & Dobbs, K., 2013. Effective Governance of a Large and Complex Cross-Jurisdictional Marine Protected Area: The Great Barrier Reef. Marine Policy, 41. pp14-24.
Day, J, C. & Kenchington, R, A. (2011) Zoning, a Fundamental Cornerstone of Effective Marine Spatial planning: Lessons learnt from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Journal of Costal Conservation 15. pp271-8
Deloitte Access Economics, 2013. Economic contribution of the Great Barrier Reef. Townsville: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. “Environmental Management Charge” Accessed October 28, 2013.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. “Fishing.” Accessed October 27, 2013. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/Managing-multiple-uses/fishing.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. “Fisheries Management.” Accessed October 27, 2013. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/how-the-reefs-managed/fisheries-in-the- marine-park/fisheries-management.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. “Permits” Accessed October 28, 2013.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Government of Australia. Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009. 2009. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://elibrary.gbrmpa.gov.au/jspui/handle/11017/199.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2010. Ecologically Sustainable Fishing in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. [online] Australia: GBRMPA. Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/13070/Pos_Paper_Ecol_Sustainable_fisheries_Nov10.pdf [Accessed 3 November 2013].
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011a. Fisheries Management. [online] Australia: GBRMPA. Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/how-the-reefs-managed/fisheries-in-the-marine-park/fisheries-management [Accessed 3 November 2013].
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011b. Commercial Fishing and Zoning. [online] Australia: GBRMPA. Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/zoning-permits-and-plans/zoning/commercial-fishing-and-zoning [Accessed 3 November 2013].
Hardiman N., Burgin S., 2010, ‘Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems’, Journal of Environmental Management, 91(11), 2096-2108
Hopley, D., Smithers, S.G., Parnell, K. (2007). The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef: Development, Diversity and Change.
Johnson, J.E. and Marshall, P.A. (2007) Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Marine Park Authority and Ausralian Greenhouse Office, Australia.
National Geographic Society (2013). The Great Barrier Reef.
Nursey-Bray, M. and Rist, P. (2009) ‘Co-management and protected area management: Achieving effective management on a contested site, lessons from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA).’ Marine Policy 33 pp.118 – 127
McCook, Lawrence J., Tony Ayling, Mike Cappo, J. Howard Choat, Richard D. Evans, Debora M. De Freitas, Michelle Huepel, Terry P. Hughes, Geoffrey P. Jones, Bruce Mapstone, Helene Marsh, Morena Mills, Fergus J. Malloy, C. Roland Pitcher, Robert L. Pressey, Garry R. Russ, Stephen Sutton, Hugh Sweatman, Renae Tobin, David R. Wachenfeld, David H. Williamson. “Adaptive Management of the Great Barrier Reef: A Globally Significant Demonstration of the Benefits of Networks of Marine Reserves.” Proceedings of the National Acedemy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, no. 43 (2010): 18278-18285.
Prayaga, Prabha, John Rolfe, Natalie Stoeckle. “The Value of Recreational Fishing in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: A Pooled Revealed Preference and Contingent Behaviour Model.” Marine Policy 34, no. 2 (2010): 244-251.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2010. Area Statement. [online] Australia: GBRMPA. Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/14122/area_statement_082010_updated_WebVersion.pdf [Accessed 4 November 2013].
Created by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975. Amended in 2006 to better fit World Heritage Organisation Guidelines.
Conceived of as a multiuse area, however:
“conservation and protection of the Great Barrier Reef will be the paramount aim of the Authority in all zones of the Marine Park.” (Dr Crass. Minister for the Environment and Conservation. May 1975)
Overlapping Legislative Frameworks:
Industry specific regulations
General Use (34%)
Habitat Protection (28%)
Conservation Area (1%)
Marine National Park (33%)
Other Zones (>5%)