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# Smart Grid: Simple Three-Bus Model Optimization

for FYP first bench
by

## Yiqiao Pei

on 11 April 2014

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#### Transcript of Smart Grid: Simple Three-Bus Model Optimization

Smart Grid:
Simple Three-Bus Model Optimization

Aims and Objectives
To gain the basic ideas of electricity market
The Basic Idea of Electricity Market
How to Establish Three-Bus Model
Power Flow ( AC is simplified into DC)
How to Realize Optimization
From Model to Linear Program Problem
Yiqiao Pei
1289627
Supervisor:
Prof. Xiao-Ping Zhang

To realize the optimization of three-bus model
To understand the necessity of real-time pricing
To establish the three-bus model
Electricity is like a commodity.
Cannot be stored
Wholesale market
Retail market
Can be bought, sold and traded
Congestion happens.
Optimization is needed.
DC Power Flow
Based on four assumptions:
Gij is very small compared to Bij.
Voltage angles are small.
Real power flow is significantly larger than reactive power flow.
Voltage magnitude is close to 1.0 in per unit system
Three-Bus Model Diagram
Model Equations and Constraints
Equality Constraints:
Inequality Constraints:
Objective Function:
Can be solved by MATLAB
The Necessity of Real-Time Pricing
Demand is variable.
Definition of Real-Time Pricing
Electricity prices may change as often as hourly, just like wholesale price.
Conclusions and Future Work
electricity markets
why and how the system need optimization
why the real-time pricing is necessary
Optimization under real-time pricing method including:
the improvement of the objective function
different ways of optimization
Thank you.
AC Power Flow
Reference
source: [4]
source: [2]
source: [4]
source: [5]
source: [1]
source: [3]
[1]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_market
[2]: X.P.Zhang, "Power Flow Analysis II", in
EECE 3T1 Lecture Notes
, 2013
[3]: http://home.eng.iastate.edu/~jdm/ee553/DCPowerFlowEquations.pdf
[4]: X.P.Zhang, "Pool Model Formulation"
[5]: P.Khajavi, H.Monsef and H.Abniki, "Load Profile Reformation through Demand Response Programs Using Smart Grid", in Modern Electric Power Systems 2010, Wroclaw, Poland
[6]: S.Borenstein, "Time-Varying Retail Electricity Prices: Theory and Practice"
High Price
Applying Real-Time Pricing
Reduced Demand
Low Price
Increased Demand
Numerical Example

-10e4<=Pij<=10e4 MW
0<=Pgi<=5e4 MW
Peak Demand
Off-Peak Demand
source: [5] [6]
in
Unbalanced supply-demand relationship
meets
meets
Full transcript