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Transcript of Nanomedicine
Examples in daily life
What in China?
Action on the organism
Action on the organism
Action on the organism
Future of nanomedicine
Social and ethical challenges need attention as Nanomedicine is interconnected to many domains like :
- Material sciences
- Particle physics
- Public health
- Environmental science.
Obligations and objectives for a manufacturer :
- Optimize the manufacturing process to produce the selected drug substance
- Take in consideration the toxicological profile of ingredient
- Establish acceptable chemical & physical stability data to support a product shelf life
- Establish limits for process impurities
Different phases of clinic trials
There are a differences in how animals and humans absorb or eliminate a substance or material.
Pre-clinical rarely investigate the long-term effects of new drugs.
Animal experiments limitations
The dangers are :
- Targeting the wrong cells
- Interact negatively with organs
Due to :
- The extremely fine particle
- Escaping to the vigilance of macrophages
Interactions with body
Goals of future nanomedicine are:
- No side effects
- Hight precision
- Target drugs at the source of the disease
Stop bleeding nanorobots
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
- cells do not die when they should (apoptosis does not work)
- new cells form when the body does not need them
These extra-cells may form a mass of tissue = a tumor
The tumor spreads by metastasis going into the blood and fixing itself on other organs.
What is a cancer?
Treatments also kill healthy cells
Tumors develop resistance to these treatments
Important side effects
: removal of the tumor (+ additional treatment)
: radiation of malignant cells of a tumor
: injection of cytotoxic product in the blood
: sample of bone-marrow cells in the blood or in the back bones of pelvis
Traditional Healing (the main therapies)
Cancer nanotechnology research
imaging,biomarker detection,targeted drug delivery…
nanoparticle syntheses,imaging equipment,novel MI probes...
fluorescent semiconductor quantum dot,ferromagnetic
nanoparticles,integrin-targeted liquid perfluorocarbon…
Applying nanotechnology in the clinic
different types of nanoparticles such as nano C-60, carbon nanotubes, and polymeric micelles to improve drug delivery to cancer cells.
: 1959 by R.Feynman and R.Hibbs
Diamond MechanoSynthesis (DMS)
- Temperature sensor
- Energy supply
- Data transmission
Carbon in the form of fullerene or diamondoid
Ultrasensitive detection schemes for assays developed by Mirkin and Groves.
(a) Fluorophore-based bio-barcode amplification assay to detect proteins developed by Mirkin
(b) Colorimetric bio-barcode amplification assay to detect cytokines developed by Groves.
In vivo near-infrared optical imaging of SPIO-siGFP constructs and effects on gene silencing in tumors.
Metal oxide nanoparticles(zinc oxide)
Nanorobots which will have many applications :
Help with orthodontic treatments
Diagnose and treat oral cancer
-Still a prototype, but tests very conclusive. For now, the plaster must be wired to a watch, but wireless components will be added.
- Tracking muscle activity before treatment
- Stretchable and flexible (only 1 mm thick)
- Measure skin temperature or the amount of glycaemia
: target ill cells while sparing the healthy ones = vectorization
Treatments more specific, more effective, less toxic for healthy cells
Protect the active substance in a nanocapsule
Be very specific by targeting ill cells
Increase the cell intrusion
nanocapsules = 2nd generation nanocapsules + recognizing elements
capacity of vectorization: the drug is administered on specific parts of the body
Injection into the blood (nanocapsules 70 times smaller than red blood cells)
PEG: nanocapsules = furtive nanocarriers (not a foreign body for the organism)
Folic acid: recognize folic acid receptors which are in big quantities on the surface of tumoral cells