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Nanomedicine

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by

Amelie Tanin

on 17 April 2014

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Transcript of Nanomedicine

Context
Cancer Treatment
Cancer Treatment
Heart Disease
Controversy
Conclusion
Biodetection
Nanocapsules
Today's state
Nanorobots
History
Examples in daily life
What in China?
Principle
Action on the organism
Fabrication
Action on the organism
Fabrication
Action on the organism
Ethic problems
Risks
Future of nanomedicine
Diamond MechanoSynthesis

Positional Assembly

The Nanomedicine

Social and ethical challenges need attention as Nanomedicine is interconnected to many domains like :
- Biology
- Material sciences
- Chemistry
- Particle physics
- Public health
- Environmental science.



Obligations and objectives for a manufacturer :
- Optimize the manufacturing process to produce the selected drug substance
- Take in consideration the toxicological profile of ingredient
- Establish acceptable chemical & physical stability data to support a product shelf life
- Establish limits for process impurities


Different phases of clinic trials



There are a differences in how animals and humans absorb or eliminate a substance or material.

Pre-clinical rarely investigate the long-term effects of new drugs.



Animal experiments limitations


The dangers are :
- Targeting the wrong cells
- Interact negatively with organs

Due to :
- The extremely fine particle
- Escaping to the vigilance of macrophages

Interactions with body



Goals of future nanomedicine are:
- No side effects
- Hight precision
- Target drugs at the source of the disease





Respirocyte


Stop bleeding nanorobots


Cancer Treatment
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
- cells do not die when they should (apoptosis does not work)
- new cells form when the body does not need them

These extra-cells may form a mass of tissue = a tumor
The tumor spreads by metastasis going into the blood and fixing itself on other organs.
What is a cancer?
Drawbacks
:
Treatments also kill healthy cells
Tumors develop resistance to these treatments
Important side effects


Surgery
: removal of the tumor (+ additional treatment)

Radiotherapy
: radiation of malignant cells of a tumor

Chemotherapy
: injection of cytotoxic product in the blood

Bone-marrow transplant
: sample of bone-marrow cells in the blood or in the back bones of pelvis
Traditional Healing (the main therapies)


Cancer nanotechnology research
imaging,biomarker detection,targeted drug delivery…
Molecular imaging
nanoparticle syntheses,imaging equipment,novel MI probes...
“Smart” nanoparticles
fluorescent semiconductor quantum dot,ferromagnetic
nanoparticles,integrin-targeted liquid perfluorocarbon…
Applying nanotechnology in the clinic
different types of nanoparticles such as nano C-60, carbon nanotubes, and polymeric micelles to improve drug delivery to cancer cells.

Origin
: 1959 by R.Feynman and R.Hibbs

Fabrication:

Positional Assembly
Bottom-up
Diamond MechanoSynthesis (DMS)
Top-down

Working:
- Moving
- Temperature sensor
- Energy supply
- Data transmission

Component
:
Carbon in the form of fullerene or diamondoid
Ultrasensitive detection schemes for assays developed by Mirkin and Groves.

(a) Fluorophore-based bio-barcode amplification assay to detect proteins developed by Mirkin

(b) Colorimetric bio-barcode amplification assay to detect cytokines developed by Groves.
In vivo near-infrared optical imaging of SPIO-siGFP constructs and effects on gene silencing in tumors.
Sunscreen

Metal oxide nanoparticles(zinc oxide)



Nanorobots which will have many applications :
Deliver anesthesia
Cure hypersensitivity
Help with orthodontic treatments
Diagnose and treat oral cancer

Nanodentistry

-Still a prototype, but tests very conclusive. For now, the plaster must be wired to a watch, but wireless components will be added.


Smart Plaster

- Tracking muscle activity before treatment
- Stretchable and flexible (only 1 mm thick)
- Measure skin temperature or the amount of glycaemia
Emulsion-Diffusion Method
Nanoprecipitation Method
Objective
: target ill cells while sparing the healthy ones = vectorization


Treatments more specific, more effective, less toxic for healthy cells

Difficulties:

Protect the active substance in a nanocapsule
Be very specific by targeting ill cells
Increase the cell intrusion

3rd generation
nanocapsules = 2nd generation nanocapsules + recognizing elements
capacity of vectorization: the drug is administered on specific parts of the body

Injection into the blood (nanocapsules 70 times smaller than red blood cells)

PEG: nanocapsules = furtive nanocarriers (not a foreign body for the organism)

Folic acid: recognize folic acid receptors which are in big quantities on the surface of tumoral cells

Solvent-Evaporation Method
J.L Coatrieux
Full transcript