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Final Exam Study Guide Fall 14

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Carolyn Lowe

on 5 December 2015

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Transcript of Final Exam Study Guide Fall 14

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Final Exam Study Guide Winter 2015
Unit 1: Chapters 1-4, 6
Unit 2: Chapters 5, 7 - 10
Unit 3: Chapters 11-14, 20
Unit 4: Chapters 16, 17, 21-23
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 6
Chapter 9
Chapter 5
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
The inquiry wheel is a better way of describing the scientific process than the traditional scientific method.
The most important thing scientists do is to ask questions - lots of them and all the time.
Scientists never PROVE anything.
You should be sure to investigate issues completely before making a decision (DHMO)
Know the 5 characteristics of all living things on earth as currently described (see ppt in Educat).
Know why water is so unique.
Know the cell theory.
Know what the function of the following organelles are:
mitochondria
nucleus
ribosome
Know what the macronutrients are and where in our diet you can get them, and what their subunits including:
Carbohydrates (starch, glycogen, cellulose/fiber).
Proteins
Fats
Know that micronutrients consist of minerals and vitamins
Know that calcium and iron are important minerals - know why they are needed and where you can get them in your diet.
Know what diabetes and osteoporosis are, and what contributes to their prevalence.
Know why the peanut butter with milk added is so good in the countries with starving children.
Know the laws of:
Conservation of energy
Conservation of matter
And why they are important in biology.
Know that photosynthesis results in:
An energy source for plants (glucose - a simple sugar)
All the material plants need to grow (amino acids & proteins, fats, simple and complex carbohydrates).
Know that the mass of any plant comes primarily from the carbon dioxide in the air with some from water.
Know the basic equation for photosynthesis.
Know the basic equation for respiration and that it's exactly opposite of the equation for photosynthesis.
Know that breaking down fat, sugar, complex carbohydrates, or any other molecule to get energy ultimately results in carbon dioxide being emitted. Thus when you lose weight you actually breathe out the weight.
Know that the purpose of respiration is to release energy for the cell to use
Know that respiration happens in the cell's mitochondria
Know that respiration releases energy that gets stored in ATP - a high energy molecule that can provide that energy where it is needed.
Know what DNA fingerprinting is, where DNA can be obtained for it (look at "it takes a lickin'"), what PCR is and why it's important.
Know that DNA in eukaryotes is found in the nucleus but know that the mitochondria has a small ring of DNA that can be used to track long-term migration of humans.
Know that all cells have DNA
Know the basic structure of DNA:
That there are 4 nitrogen bases - ATC&G
Know this about protein synthesis:
A gene is a code for a protein.
1 gene's worth of DNA is a code for 1 protein.
A chromosome consists of lots of genes linked end to end.
mRNA is used to take that code to the ribosome where proteins are assembled and tRNA is used to take the amino acids to the ribosome.
DNA is also found in the mitochondria and that mitochondrial DNA comes all from the mom.
Know that in mitosis cells create exact copies of themselves by replicating the DNA and then dividing.
Know that all eukaryote cells undergo mitosis except in the formation of gametes (sperm and egg)
Know that meiosis is a process by which sperm and egg are formed and only one of each chromosome pair are passed on to the new cell thus half the number of chromosomes.
Know that all the cells in your body have the exact same DNA except egg or sperm.
Know that cancer is a disease that occurs when cells don't stop dividing when they should and bad cells aren't killed.
Know what a mutation is
Know that only mutations that occur in egg or sperm can be passed down to offspring.
Know that cancer often requires both the genetics and the environmental effects to manifest itself.
Know that mutations may be detrimental but can also be advantageous and in most cases cause no effect at all.
Know that cancer results from three things - DNA doesn't get repaired, mitosis doesn't stop when it should if the DNA is bad, and apoptosis (cell death) doesn't occur.
Know why meiosis is important and how it is different from mitosis.
Know which cells undergo meiosis.
Know what an allele is.
Know what a dominant trait is
Know what a recessive trait is
Know that for a recessive trait to appear you have to have two genes for it.
Know that most disabling genetic diseases are recessive.
Know the common genetic diseases we discussed: cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Huntington's disease
Know that a genotype is what your genes are and a phenotype is how they are expressed.
Know that you have 46 chromosomes - you got 23 from your mom and a matching 23 from your dad.
Know how to do a Punnett square
Know that the sex chromosomes are X and Y. If you have XX you are female and if you have XY you are male.
Know that some traits are carried on the X chromosome. If that trait is recessive then a female must have 2 genes to express that trait. A male only has 1 X chromosome so he only needs 1 gene.
Know that sex-linked traits are more often expressed in males.
Know that hemophilia, color-blindness, and red and orange colors in cats are all sex-linked. Know why all calico/tortie cats are females
Know that in some cases two different alleles cause a blending of traits - either both show up or the result is something between the two.
Know about ABO, + - blood types
Know that environment often impacts whether or how a gene is expressed.
Know what a stem cell is
Know where stem cells are obtained
Know why we are interested in them for research.
Know what cell differentiation is and how that shows up in stem cells (you do not need to know pluripotent or multipotent)
Know how genetic variation occurs.
Know what a mutation is.
Know how a species adapts.
Know what evolution is
Know how natural selection occurs
Know how natural selection can lead to evolution.
Know what "fitness" means in biology
Know what MRSA is, what resistant bacteria are, how they come to be, and what we should to to not cause more to be created.
Know what common diseases are caused by viruses, that and that viruses are not "killed" by antibiotics.
Know what ecology is and what ecologists study.
Know what exponential population is
Know why exponential population can't go on forever
Know what carrying capacity and limiting factor are
Know what the limiting factor of humans is
Know what logistic population is. and why it occurs (limited resources)
Know about the situation with the wolves in Isle Royale.
Know what a biome, a population, a community and an ecosystem are.
Know what a niche is.
Know why organisms compete
Know the two types of competition (intra and interspecific)
Know the three types of symbiosis and be able to recognize an example of each
Know the difference in an autotroph/producer and a heterotroph/consumer and which organisms are each.
Know what carnivores, herbivores and omnivores are.
Know the four trophic levels (producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, and be able to recognize an example.
Know that there is ONE species of human on earth.
Know that race does not have meaning in biology - that we are all the same.
Know what the "out of Africa" theory is.
Know that there is some evidence that some Europeans have a few Neanderthal genes.
Know why biologists theorize that northern people have lighter skin and more equatorial people have darker skin.
Know that scientists do not believe that humans evolved from monkeys but that apes and humans share a common ancestor.

Chapter 23

Know what the greenhouse effect is and what causes it.
Know why the greenhouse effect is a good thing.
Know the three most important greenhouse gases. Know what the most important one is.
Know why global climate change might be a better term than global warming.
Know what humans do to contribute to climate change.
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