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Timmy Funfade

on 15 June 2014

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- Group B

Theories & Frameworks
The study of complex systems and the need to solve problems from a holistic perspective unifies fields. “The use of concepts and application [of paradigms and models] with each other maximizes success” (Haines, 1999; p. 4).

Systems thinking as paradigm, tool or framework cuts across philosophy, science, technology, management and nature (Gharajedaghi, 2011; Göktürk, 2011; Laszlo, 2006; Senge, 2006; Strijbos, 2010).

How we use them is what makes system thinking a diversity enshrined concept, universally application from inter and multi-disciplinary perspectives (Strijbos, 2010).
- Except from Funfade, 2014; p.6

- Seeing things from a holistic perspective
- interpreting the universe as a series of interconnected and interrelated wholes
- identifying patterns of change
- seeing, thinking about and solving problems in more efficient way
- dealing with and understanding complexity
- This work is a visual representation or concept map of the theories, contributors, and models that make up the academic literature on the topic of systems thinking
Traditional Systems

What is a System?
"A system is an entity which maintains its existence through mutual interaction of its parts"
- Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Application of Systems thinking
Mental Process Relevant to Systems Thinking
-to break down into its parts in order to inspect, understand and restructure
- looking at individual elements while seeing the whole
- looking both the synthesis and analysis of a system
Systems characteristics include:
the boundaries, arrangements and efficiency of the individual elements affects the efficiency of the overall system
properties of whole are reflected in properties of individual elements
the individual elements function within a boundary
systems have Inputs, outputs and the elements within are able to interact with each other such that feedback is given and received (Ackoff, 1994; Checkland, 2012).
- E.g. Emotional & Social
- E.g. mechanical or Financial
- E.g. Environment or Physiological
Principles of Systems thinking
Balancing short & long term perspectives
Paradigms of Systems thinking
-Dynamic Leadership
Soft thinking
Hard thinking
Mental Models
Operations Research & Management
Epistemological Inquiry
Critical thinking

Metaphoric Images and lenses for Viewing Systems
General Systems
Emancipatory Systems Thinking
Management Practices
Critical Thinking
Some Systems
Thinking Theories
Evolutionary Learning Community Praxis
Evolutionary Systems Design
Haines (1999) Learning Organization Framework
Knowledge Management Framework
Strategic orientation to life Framework
Systems Management Model
Systems has a cause and effect relationship
Systems change over time & these changes have consequences on the larger system
Account for measurable and non-measurable factors that influence part behavior and subsequently the whole
Systems are dynamically complex and interdependent
Leveraged Actions
Studies in Systems thinking as a concept
Why Systems thinking??
"Big Picture"
Decision Making
Need to Solve Problems
Dynamic process of recognizing changes and patterns
using models to construct, validate and develop present realities
Understand Feedback and Feed-forward
** balancing
- the right action,
-at the right time
- the right place - the right cost
Seven Taxonomies of System Thinking
Closed Loop thinking: cyclically Interrelated processes
Generic thinking: Viewing systems generically beyond their specific characteristics
Structural thinking: thinking in volumetric stock and flows
operational thinking: establishing the causality of the behavioral elements in a system
Scientific: Testing thoughts scientifically to prove quantifiable
Continuum thinking: Finding what exists between black and white extremes
Algorithm thinking: a fusing of logical and systemic thinking
broad groups of systems
Hard Systems
- elements of a system organized in an reducible hierarchy
Systems thinking approaches
Soft Systems
- reflective of emergent properties from standing perspectives
Dialectic Systems
- Combining two or more systems
As a perspective
As a Language
As a set of tools
Systems theory
Chaos theory
General evolution Theory
Total Systems Intervention
Doing the thing right is about efficiency, and doing the right thing is about effectiveness
- Peter Drucker
A system is a whole and function as part of a larger system
- Russell Ackoff
Ross Ashby is known for advocating for systems and applied systems philosophy.
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy is known for assisting and bringing the processes that are used in the natural sciences to the social sciences and began to define general systems theory
W. Edwards Deming is known for the transformation of the prevailing system of thinking.
Kenneth E. Boulding supported the need for general systems theory.
Zalia is credited with being the first to use the term general systems theory.
Hagel is one of the first to refer to a system as whole of the sum of its individual parts.
C. West Churchman... made significant contributions in the fields of management science, operations research and systems theory
Peter Senge when he referred to ‘systems thinking’ as The Fifth Discipline (1990).
Taiichi Ohno
Walter A. Shewart
John Seddon
Forrester Jay
Charles Darwin the naturalist,
James Madison
Thucydides the great Greek historian,
Lao Tzu, the Taoist.

Checkland PB (1978). The origins and nature of “hard” systems thinking
Learning Organization
Knowledge sharing and Transfer
Our Day to Day lives

TAckoff, R. L. (1979). Resurrecting the future of operational research. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 189-199.
Ackoff, R. L. (1994). Systems thinking and thinking systems. System Dynamics Review, 10(2‐3), 175-188.
Adamu, I. (2014) Re: Discussion – Week 1: Hierarchical Thinking vs. Systems Thinking [Online Classroom Discussion Post]. Walden University. Retrieved June 8th, 2014 from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_5101975_1%26url%3D
Alter, S. (2004). Desperately Seeking Systems Thinking in the Information Systems Discipline. In Twenty-Fifth International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), 757-770.
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Checkland, P. B. (1978). The origins and nature of “hard” systems thinking.Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, 5(2), 99-110.
Checkland, P. B. (1978). The origins and nature of “hard” systems thinking. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, 5(2), 99-110.
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Group "B" members
-Marcus Edwards
- Rotimi Funfade
- Kelly Hawkins
- Patrick Enabuso
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