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The Safavid Empire (AP World History Project)

AP World History Project
by

James Kramer

on 31 January 2011

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Transcript of The Safavid Empire (AP World History Project)

War and Conflict A Brief History... • The Safavid Empire Started with Shah Ismail’s leadership in 1501
• Descendant of Safi al-Din, a Sufi Mystic Muslim leader of a Turkish Ethnic.
• Under Ismail, the Safavid took control of much of Iran and Southern Iraq
• Ismail, who called himself Shah (ruler of Persian State), was a Shiite Muslim, which formed the basis of the Islamic Shi’a faith that was present throughout the entire dynasty. •Safavid Empire wasn’t just about their Islamic Shi’a religion
•Built a strong army, united under their religion that tried to wage jihad wars to convert unbelievers to Shi’a Muslims.
•Many successful leaders, such as Abbasid I, built a strong military, while at the same time increasing cultural values among the peoples, such as establishing the cultural beauty at the Safavid capitol, Isfahan.
Decline •The Safavid Empire started its period of decline.
•Had corrupt bureaucracy and officials
•Peasant revolts
•Had external conflicts from rival Muslim empires and other Empires that were threatening to take land
•Rich and powerful spent money for a life of luxury
•Had a non-cooperating army unwilling to make changes that might take away military power
•Had weaker and unprepared rulers hidden away in palaces to lead a falling empire
•Safavid Dynasty came to an end in 1736. LandScape Social Structure Was a hierarchy.
In Order:
Shah or the king
Bureaucracy and landed classes (which the positions in the bureaucracy were by merit rather than birth)
Common people
Women did not have freedom and were forced to live behind the veil
Captured and enslaved youths and forced them into the military. Economy and Trade Used Silk Road
Traded directly with England and the Netherlands
They traded Iranian carpets for silk and textiles
The Safavid’s main exports were goat hair, pearls and Indian spices
Their main imports were textiles, spices, metals, coffee and sugar. Skit Skit Skit Political Structure Tasmaph I, became shah in 1534 and restored dynastic power.
Under Abbas I (1587-1629), the empire reached its zenith. The rulers brought the Turkic warriors under control; they were assigned villages and peasant labor for support.
Some leaders gained important posts in the state and posed a constant threat to the shahs. Persians were recruited into the imperial bureaucracy as a counterbalance.
Safavids, as the Ottomans did, recruited captured slave youths into the army and bureaucracy. They were very important during the reign of Abbas I. They became the backbone of his army and held high civil posts. They monopolized firearm use and received training from European advisors.
The Safavids originally wrote in Turkish, but Persian, after Chaldiran, became the language of state
Abbas' tolerance towards Christians was part of his policy of establishing diplomatic links with European powers to try to enlist their help in the fight against their common enemy, the Ottoman Empire. Religion and Culture Geography and Migration Genelle's Stuff Summary The Safavid Empire The Maranjab Desert Capitol Isfahan • The Safavid Empire was known for its Shi’a Islam Religion
• Didn’t help Conflict With Ottoman Empire; they were Sunni Muslim
• Eventually Empires clashed along Borders of their empires
• Battle of Chaldiran was a fateful battle between the two Rival Empires
• Battle Demonstrated importance of Muskets, Cannons
• Safavid was already using artillery and Weapons to enemies on the East
• Conflict couldn’t be delayed between Ottomans and Safavids
• Safavid Cavalry was no match for Ottoman Firepower
• Ottomans Victorious
• Luckily Ottomans had to retreat
• Ismail hopes defeated
Chaldiran Also...
• Turkic Chiefs had Warrior Nobilities
• Warrior Nobles were assigned to villages to receive tribute
• Powerful Warrior Nobles Occupied Imperial Administration Posts
• So…Persians were recruited for Positions at court and expanding Bureaucracy
• Army Slave boys (Like Ottoman Janissaries) were used and captured from Russia
• Slave Boys could rise to positions of Power
• Slave regiments became major force in Safavid political struggles
• Abbas the Great helped build strong military
• He used slave regiments successfully, monopolizing use of firearms
• Abbas could call on help from 'infidel' Europeans for assistance
• Sherley brothers helped show Abbas Casting of Cannons
• Trained slave infantry and special regiments with use of muskets
• 40,000 troops and elite bodyguards Another Hierarchy... A Righteous And Warlike... Government (Muslim) In 1501 Safavid Empire emerged.
The government structure was a theocracy; was organized by religion.
Shi’a Muslims
Safavid’s vs. Ottoman’s
have been at war for a long time; differences in religious sects.
Isma’il and Abbas I.
Isma’il lead the Turkic people to many victories in battle, while Abbas the great educated youths, captured in Russia, converted them to Islam and trained them for war.
The battle at Caldiran was between the Ottoman’s and the Safavid’s, Sunnis and Shi’as.
The Ottoman’s defeated the Safavid’s and the Ottoman’s were able to build the most powerful empire in the world.
Safavid’s were never able to expand into a great dynasty.
Women in the empire were at a disadvantage as were many women during this time period.
The dynasty declined when the successor of Abbas I couldn’t handle the job as the leader. He was easily manipulated and because of that money was spent on things that were unnecessary.
The dynasty declined and Mughal and Ottoman armies slowly took over the land controlled by the Safavid’s and there was nothing the Safavid’s could do to keep their dynasty alive.  Faith became a major pillar of the dynasty.
 Shi’s Muslim.
 Sunni Muslims, Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and followers of Sufi preachers were pressured to convert.
 Safavid Empire imported Arabic-speaking Shi’a religious experts, but later shahs relied on Persian religious scholars.
 Persian religious scholars were entered into service of the faith and were paid by the government.
 Mullahs, or local mosque officials and prayer leaders, were supported and supervised by the state.
 Much of religion was under government control.
-Religious leaders and buildings
Required to curse the first three caliphs
Had to mention the Safavid ruler in Friday’s sermon
Teaching in mosque schools was planned and directed by state officials Safavid Flag Qur'an There were many popular religious festivals.
-Examples
Commemorating the martyrdom of Husayn, a son of Ali
Public flagellation and passion plays
Pilgrimages to Shi’a shrines (Karbala in Iraq)
Shi’ism became part of Iranian identity.
Changes in status and shifts in religion were crucial to the rise of Safavid power.
Abbas I established his empire as a center of Islamic trade and culture.
-protected trade routes
-set up workshops for different goods
-encouraged widespread trade with multiple nations
-special attention placed on the capital (Isfahan)
-great mosques built Also... Questi ns?
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