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Chapter 9 Section 2-Challenges to the New Government
Transcript of Chapter 9 Section 2-Challenges to the New Government
Spain held much of North America west of the Mississippi and it also claimed Florida and the Port of New Orleans at the Mouth of the Mississippi
For American settlers in the West, this port was key to trade as it carried their goods to market and they took Spanish threats to close this port very seriously
The Spanish also stirred up trouble between the American settlers and the Native Americans tribes in the Southeast
The strongest resistance to American settlement came from Native Americans in the Northwest Territory as Native Tribes hoped to join together to form an independent "Indian Nation", they received support from the British who still illegally held forts in the region
Washington sent troops to the Northwest Territory and at 1st the Native tribes joined together to defeat the American Army, eventually in 1791 Washington sent more troops led by Anthony Wayne, whose nickname was "Mad Anthony" so you can guess what type of fighting style he had
Expecting British help, Native American warriors gathered at British-held Fort Miami and on August 20, 1794, a fighting force of around 2,000 Native Americans fought against Wayne's Army and were defeated by Wayne's Army at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
The Native Americans retreated to Fort Miami and the British refused to help them because they did not want to fight the United States and 12 tribes were forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 which gave much of present day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S.
Another problem was created when the government put a tax on whiskey as for farmers whiskey and the grain it was made from were important products
Because of poor roads, backcountry farmers had a hard time getting their grain to market and it was easier to get it there in liquid form and whiskey was more expensive than grain as well
In the summer of 1794, a group of farmers in western Pennsylvania staged the Whiskey Rebellion against the tax as one armed group beat up a tax collector, tarred and feathered him, and stole his horse
Washington felt the government must show strength and in October 1794, General Henry Lee, with Alexander Hamilton at his side, led an army of 13,000 soldiers and captured 20 prisoners, there was little bloodshed but Washington proved his point that the U.S. was not going to be pushed around
In 1789, a financial crisis led the French people to rebel against their government, at 1st, Americans supported the French Revolution but by 1792, the Revolution had become very violent as thousands of French people were massacred, including King Louis XVI in 1793
Other European Kings thought the French Revolution would cause their people to revolt against them so many of them fought with France during the Revolution as well, the Americans were in a tough spot because the Americans were trying to build a nation, stay out of fights, not cause trouble, but France had really helped them during the American Revolution, so did they owe the French a favor to help them?
A 1778 treaty still bound the two nations together plus many saw the French Revolution as proof the American cause was just, Jefferson for one was a supporter of the French Revolution and felt that trying to stop it would be against what America is supposed to stand for
Hamilton felt the other way as Britain was an important trading partner and the young country could not risk another war with Britain by siding with France
In April 1793, Washington declared the U.S. neutral and that it would not side with either country
Britain made it hard for the U.S. to remain neutral as in late 1792, the British began seizing American ships and taking their supplies
Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to England to negotiate a deal
In Jay's Treaty, the British agreed to finally leave the Ohio River Valley forever and to pay damages for U.S. vessels they had taken but he failed to organize a trade agreement with Britain over the British West Indies market, so the treaty was unpopular
In 1795, Pinckney's Treaty with Spain gave America the right to travel freely on the Mississippi River and the right to store goods in New Orleans without paying dues
Homework Assignment-Section 2 Assessment
P. 302 #3 and 4