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Transcript of Terrorism
Types Of Terrorism
: "Terrorism is the unlawful
use of force and violence against persons or
property to intimidate or coerce a government,
the civilian population, or any segment thereof,
in furtherance of political or social objectives."
a. Terrorism has a strong bias because many
different viewpoints can be expressed by
a. Forerunners of modern terrorists because of; aspects of motivation, organization, targeting, and goals. Remembered because of psychological impact.
Zealots of Judea
- "Sicarii" fought against the Roman occupation forces in 6 C.E., carried out assassinations and murders.
- Northern Iran sent a lone assassin to successfully kill a key enemy leader. The assassin would wait next to their victims to be killed or captured, this inspired fear into their enemies.
d. First use of the word terrorism
i. “Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible,” – Maximilien Robespierre leader in the French Revolution during the
Reign of Terror
-strong identity of a group of people to a nation
i. After WWI the Treaty of Versailles created new nations based on nationalities and ethnic groups. Many minorities claimed or wanted their own independence but were not recognized.
ii. Colonial empires made foreign people either assimilate or struggle against foreigners.
- A form of Collective violence interfering with peace, security, and normal functioning of the community.
- Violent criminal behavior designed primarily to generate fear in the community, or substantial segment of it, for political purposes
- conscious design to create and maintain a high degree of fear for coercive purposes, the end is for individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.
- use of crime and violence to gain influence but has different purposes.
i.e. (that is) the fleeing felon who takes a hostage.
Limited Political terrorism
- Acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the state.
Official or state terrorism
- nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.
- terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy.
i.Higher educated, well-off individuals,
and mostly military age men, aged 16-40.
i. Ku Klux Klan, Al Qaeda, American Gangs,…
- terrorist acts by governmental agents or forces. Germany’s bombing of London, U.S. atomic destruction of Hiroshima, Japan attack on Pearl Harbor.
1.Counter Insurgency, to prevent a rebellion or other attack on a country- Tiananmen Square 1989 (China), Genocide (Rwanda), Reign of Terror (France),
-A state can sponsor terrorism by funding or harboring a terrorist organization. When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such.
Hamas, A political organization in Palestine (much like republicans and democrats) However, they have an active military.
- want political independence
- race is the defining characteristic of society, superior race theory
- placing one nations culture and interests above other nations
-overthrow existing gov’t and replacing it with a new socio-political structure
- concerned with the structure and organization of forms of government and communities.
- see their struggle as holy
-issue oriented such as abortion
-home grown, operate against their own country
International and Transnational
- are not linked to a specific region or country and operate all over the world.
VI. Insurgency vs Terrorism
-Challenges existing government
for control of all a territory. Insurgencies only target
military combatants, including police and security personnel.
Typically called Insurgents or guerillas.
- do not discriminate between combatants and non-combatants.
Terrorists try to change public opinion of governments.
Typically called “freedom fighters, “soldiers”, “activists”
VII.Future of Terrorism
i.Disposable cellular phones
ii.Long-distance calling cards
iv.Embedded information in digital photographs
Jihad- holy war
Domestic Terrorism in America.
Black Hand- Serbian Nationalist Group
Thought to have started WWI with its assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand.
How Do Governments Stop Terrorists?
Palmer Raids- attempts to capture and deport radical leftists.
Red Scare- Fear of the spread of communism
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
Oklahoma City Bombing.- Timothy McVeigh
Unabomber- Theodore Kaczynski
Boston Tea Party
2001 Anthrax attacks
Army of God
Black Army Liberation Movement
Earth Liberation Front
Jewish Defense League
War On Terror- International military campaign designed to eliminate al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations.
USA PATRIOT Act- 2001, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism