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Estonian Nature

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by

Hille Arumäe

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Estonian Nature

Authors Mari-Liis Tõnnori and Diana Edur (form 7)
Used sources
Brown bears
The biggest predators are brown bears who are omnivores.
They are strong, powerful and common everywhere on the mainland.
They do not see and hear very well and but smell excellently.
They hibernate in winter.

There are 78 species of fishes, 11 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 375 species of birds and 64 species of mammals. (EE, 2011).
The biggest wild animal is elk (216 cm high, weight over 300 kg)
Fauna
There are many small inland lakes, ponds and bog pools.
The largest lake is
Peipsi-Pihkva

lake
(the fifth largest lake in Europe, 3555 km²) and
Võrtsjärv
(270 km²)
There are waterfalls in North-Estonia rivers (32 are over 1m high), (KIK, Getrail, 2008).
Jägala waterfall is
8 m high and up to 60 m wide.
Lakes and waterfalls
Estonia consists of mainland and islands
There are 1521 islands, 14 of them have the permanent population.
Estonia is mainly flat.
There are many beautiful outcrops and steep rocky coasts.
South-Estonia is hilly and there are our highest peaks.
Landscape
Natterjack toad
Estonian Plants
Estonia is one of the richest countries in forests: about half of the land is covered with forests.
Estonia belongs to the zone of mixed forests.
We are holding the second place as one of the swamp richest countries in the world after Finland and before Canada.

Flora

Taevaskoda is one of the most beautiful natural sights in Estonia where you can see two very old cliffs of red sandstones
The higher is 24 m high
Taevaskoja and Ahja primeval valley

The
Võhandu river
is 162 km long, it is the longest river with Pühajärve lake and Tamula lake
The
Pärnu river
is the longest. (144 km long)
The longest rivers
Is the highest peak in Estonia and in the Baltic States.
Height is 318 m, but the relative height is only 60 m
On the top there is a 30 m high watch-tower where you can see more than 50 km around
Suur Munamägi
There are 4 seasons in Estonia.
The highest temperature measured was 35,6 °C (11 August 1992) and the lowest temperature measured - 43,5 °C (17 January 1940).
The deepest snow was 104 cm (1924).
The stormiest weather was on Ruhnu island: 48m/s, (2 November 1969)
Climate
Estonian Nature
Saaremaa yellow rattle
Rhinanthus osiliensis
Bumble-bee
There are over 10,000 different insect species in Estonia (Teder, 2013).
25 species of bumble-bees.
Bumble bees make their nests into the ground.

Cornflower
Estonian national flower
Estonian Orchids
All 37 species are under protection
Estonian sawwort

Estonia has a diverse flora. We also have two endemic species, which cannot be found elsewhere in the world: Saaremaa Yellow Rattle
which grows only in Estonia and North Latvia
and Estonian saw-wort
Conifers
EE, 2011. http://entsyklopeedia.ee/artikkel/eesti_selgroogsed
Sarapuu, T., 2005. Eesti selgroogsed. http://bio.edu.ee/loomad/
EMHI, 2013. http://www.emhi.ee/index.php?ide=6,747,748
Mänd, M., 1999. Kimalane - teda me teame küll. http://www.loodusajakiri.ee/eesti_loodus/EL/vanaweb/9904/kimalane.html
KIK, Geotrail, 2008. Põhja-Eesti klint. http://www.klint.envir.ee/klint/est/8.html
Teder, T., 2013. Putukaliikide arv. http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/~tiited/putukad/putukate_arv.html

Photos:
google.com (only images licensed for commercial use)
H. Arumäe

(EMHI, 2013)
Farm bee
Bumble bee
Lives in coastal areas, is 8-10 cm long
These species are under protection.
People take measures to increase their declining population
To save natterjack toads, the small offsprings from Manilaiu island were taken to Denmark in 2008, Five of them were raised there and after mating season and spawning several hundreds of frog spawns were brought back by plane in 2013. After raising them they were taken back to Manilaiu island.

Night violin
juniper yew tree
pine spruce
Sundews-the plants which eat insects
Nature Symbols of our Pärnu County

Pine
Rufous milkcap (mushroom)
Brown bear
Natterjack toad
Bumble-bee
Golden eagle
Zander (fish)
Forest sand dunes
Dunes at Rannametsa
30 m from the foot
Natterjack Toad
Golden eagle
Breeding of natterjack toads
Young natterjack toads
Bumble-bee nest
Kernu juniper
Saaremaa yellow rattle
Estonian sawwort
Fly orchid
Lady`s slipper
Full transcript