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More vocabulary, better skills

Acquisition and learning processes
by

Chris Zara

on 4 December 2014

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Transcript of More vocabulary, better skills

Class activities with .tic
What?
Why?
How?
Tests
Q&A
More vocabulary,
better skills

by Cristina Zara
= ...
= ...
= ...
= ...
= ...
= ...
Yes, we ...! (President Obama)
to live temporarily outdoors, usually fore recreational purpose = ...
to communicate by phone = ...
Hamlet was written ... Shakespeare.
The girl ...s an ice cream.
on the contrary/except = ...
These are ... people.

This is an interesting ....ing.
They ... a house.
of great extent/large = ...
shining/smart = ...
= ...
= ...
this is a tree-...
= ...
Fr. né/e = ...
= ... (pl)
parts of the ...
= ...
the sky is ... (color)
to ... the candles on your birthday cake
Donate ...
and
save lives!
When you sneeze, we say

‘... you!’
Work should be
a little ... of fun, too!
a small piece/quantity of anything = ...
= ...
proof of purchase = ...
Anger makes you smaller, while forgiveness
forces you to grow ... what you were.
(Cherie Carter-Scott)
outside the limits /
the far side of something = ...
Fr. entre (=2) = ...
comparative form of good = ...
immediately under the surface = ...
in/toward a lower place = ...
to have proper qualifications to be a member of a group = ...
to have confidence or faith = ...
The astronaut is not an alien, but a human ... .
the sun is ... a cloud
to start = ...
earlier, sooner than = ...
= ...
to come/change/grow to be = ...
for the reason that/due to the fact that = ...
the quality present in a thing / person that gives intense pleasure or deep satisfaction to the mind = ...
to support = ...
= ...
To ... or not to ...? That is the question. (Hamlet, Shakespeare)
to exist or live = ...
hostile engagement between opposing military forces = ...
the bottom support of anything/ that on which a thing stands or rests = ...
= ...
you save money at the ...
= ...
opposite of good = ...
opposite of ‘front’ = ...
B
Space isn’t that far. It’s only one hour’s drive ... if your car could go straight upwards. (Fred Hoyle)
distant/in another direction = ...
Fr. moyen/ne = ...
to make an effort/to try = ...
to set upon in a violent way/to begin fighting (with/out weapons) = ...
She’s looking ... herself
in the mirror.
an organization of people with a common purpose = ...
to demand/request/expect = ...
I do not think that it is as hot and humid today, ... it was yesterday.
similarly/equally = ...
I read this info in an ... in the yesterday newspaper.
to come to destination = ...
surrounding/encircling = ...
they usually make war = ... (pl)
= ...
to name/assign to a position = ...
When you want a job, you have to ... first.
to come into sight/
become visible = ...
Please let me know if you have ... questions.
one or more without specification = ...
reply/response = ...
+1 / different = ...
all these are ... (pl)
& = …
very old/from a distant past = ...
quantity of.../sum = ...
every time, without exception = ...
Personally, I am always ready to
learn, ... I do not always like being taught.
(Sir Winston Churchill)
in spite of/even though = ...
He was this, and he was ... tall.
in addition/too = ...
We judge ourselves by what we feel
capable of doing,
while others judge us by
what we have ... done.
(H.W. Longfellow)
walking ... the beach
this person is ...
= ...
to give permission = ...
Human beings are the only creatures that ... their children to come back home. (Bill Cosby)
the whole
quantity/amount = ...
flying up in the ...
If you sign it, it means that you ...
gone/past = ...
an FBI ...
the ... differences
... what has happened, I can never return there.
in opposition/contrary to = ...
If the trip to Cuba is less expensive this year, we can ... to go again.
= ...
an exciting or
very unusual experience = ...
position of superiority (in a competition) = ...
to move forward = ...
= .........
where you live = your ...
In Math you learn how to ...
Stop talking, start ...-ing!
He performs in Hamlet. He is an ...-or.
my house is ... the river
you open one at the bank = ...
synonym of AGREEMENT = ... (n)
opposite of REJECT = ...
once more/another time = ...
À PROPOS DE… = …
synonym of CAN = ...
Lucy has ... dog.
First
1000 most frequent words

serious attention, solicitude, protection = ...
= ...
C
The fire ...s the house.
They are ... and sister.
Fr. apporter/amener = ...
= ...
= ...
Zebras are ... and white.
opposite of small = ...
of the highest quality/excellence/standing = the ...
Painting is an ... .
synonym of 'rise' = ...
There are different challenges that ... day by day in the world.
Fr. entre (>2) = ...
to raise as his/her own = ...
keeping its head ... the water
He paints pictures. He is ... artist.
a flat piece of wood or other material = ...
Source: www.lextutor.ca
Brown Corpus: frequency lists (0-1000)
Receptive vs productive knowledge
College Regina Assumpta
January, 2013

Research
1. Choose an authentic text or write your own
Check the vocabulary using frequency lists (http://www.lextutor.ca/)
Replace the hard words with easy words
2. Choose an authentic text or write your own
Check the vocabulary using frequency lists (http://www.lextutor.ca/)
Provide glosses for the low-frequency words (4k+)
How to simplify and adapt a text to your readers
Activity – Word Race
Reading
Vocabulary knowledge




Students match definitions to target words in the text
Students answer comprehension questions which focus on target words
Students match words to a set of collocations
(Nation 2001)
How can I teach high frequency vocabulary in the classroom?
Matching words and definitions
Classifying words
Finding synonyms/antonyms
Word detectives
Word parts (form)
Collocations
and many others…
How can I teach high-frequency vocabulary in the classroom?
Think about
Learning goals
Design features of the activity

Make sure that the target vocabulary is included in your input
How can I teach high-frequency vocabulary in the classroom?
Clearly a deficit
There are approximately 1,284 words out of 3,000 that students will not encounter or will rarely encounter in their textbooks
Coverage figures for the 3k
Vary between 89% and 95% (Nation, 2006)
These are important words to learn and a realistic goal for the three years of secondary studies
The High-Frequency Levels
The 1k level is well represented in the corpus, but
Many of them are function words
E.g., ‘the’, ‘to’, ‘and’, and ‘a’
Many of them are very basic content words
E.g., ‘people’, ‘work’, ‘life’, ‘day’, and ‘music’
Coverage figure for the 1k level
Approximately 78%-81% known text coverage (Nation, 2006)
The High-Frequency Levels
(White et al., 2012)
Sec 5 – Vocabulary knowledge
Quebec research shows
Francophone students who have completed five years of secondary school in Québec
lack receptive knowledge of about 40% of words at the 1000 to the 6000 frequency levels (White, Martini, Horst & Cobb, 2012)
Context
Why do we need this textbook research?
Quebec is an EFL context
Languages spoken at home - 81.1% French, 10% English, and 8.9% other languages (Statistics Canada, Census 2006)
Context
a wish
a test
a promise
a job
someone a favour
your best
a speech
a telephone call
Do we do or do we make?
a mess
a mistake
the housework
the beds
a noise
Examples - Collocation
Sample of the SEL
An ESL word list was created to address the deficits in the high-frequency vocabulary in the current pedagogical materials
1,284 high-frequency word families
Proper nouns and ‘British words’ were removed
E.g., Australia, bloke and quid
The goal is to assist teachers in their word choices when they choose, adapt, or develop new activities to be used in the classroom
SEL (Secondary ESL List)
Most words at the 2k and 3 k levels occur in the books
950 at the 2k level
E.g., text (695), below (207), and animal (210)
856 at the 3k level
E.g., grammar (180), adventure (128), and invent (174)
The recycling of these words across the books does not meet the requirements to be considered well represented in the books
E.g., intervene (3k), occurs only once
The High-Frequency Levels
High-frequency vocabulary must be taught in ESL/EFL classrooms (Schmitt, 2011; Nation, 2001)
Secondary students in Québec need to increase their vocabulary level in all high-frequency bands, even the very basic 1k (White et al., 2012)
Most of the words in the textbooks belong to the high-frequency word bands, but there are important issues with the way they are represented in the books
The High-Frequency Levels
Example
Choose an authentic text or write your own
Check the vocabulary using frequency lists (http://www.lextutor.ca/)
Replace
the hard words with easy words
How to simplify and adapt a text to your readers
- Learners acquire new vocabulary over the course of
repeated exposures
- Recycling is beneficial (Milton, 2009)
-
What is the number of exposures needed to acquire a
new word?
Kachroo (1962):
7 or more
times
Zahar Cobb & Spada (2001):
6 or more
Saragi, Nation & Meister (1978):
16 times

Horst (2009):
10 times
Recycling vocabulary
Activity – Word Race
Matching words and definitions
Classifying words
Finding synonyms/antonyms
Word detectives
Word parts (form)
Collocations
and many others…
Activity ideas:
Think about
Learning goals
Design
features of the activity

Make sure that the target vocabulary is included in your
input.
How can I teach high-frequency vocabulary in the classroom?
Sample of the SEL
An ESL word list was created to address the deficits in the high-frequency vocabulary in the current pedagogical materials
1,284 high-frequency word families
Proper nouns and ‘British words’ were removed
E.g., Australia, bloke and quid
The goal is to assist teachers in their word choices when they choose, adapt, or develop new activities to be used in the classroom
SEL (Secondary ESL List)
Clearly a deficit
There are approximately 1,284 words out of 3,000 that students will not encounter or will rarely encounter in their textbooks
Coverage figures for the 3k
Vary between 89% and 95% (Nation, 2006)
These are important words to learn and a realistic goal for the three years of secondary studies
The High-Frequency Levels
Most words at the 2k and 3 k levels occur in the books
950 at the 2k level
E.g., text (695), below (207), and animal (210)
856 at the 3k level
E.g., grammar (180), adventure (128), and invent (174)
The recycling of these words across the books does not meet the requirements to be considered well represented in the books
E.g., intervene (3k), occurs only once
The High-Frequency Levels
The 1k level is well represented in the corpus, but
Many of them are function words
E.g., ‘the’, ‘to’, ‘and’, and ‘a’
Many of them are very basic content words
E.g., ‘people’, ‘work’, ‘life’, ‘day’, and ‘music’
Coverage figure for the 1k level in textbooks
Approximately 78%-81% known text coverage (Nation, 2006)
The High-Frequency Levels
High-frequency vocabulary
must be taught in ESL/EFL classrooms
(Schmitt, 2011; Nation, 2001)

Secondary students in Québec need to increase their vocabulary level in all high-frequency bands,
even the very basic 1k
(White et al., 2012)
The High-Frequency Levels
Quebec research shows
Francophone students who have completed
five years of secondary
school in Québec lack receptive knowledge of about
40% of words at the 1000 - 6000 frequency levels
(White, Martini, Horst & Cobb, 2012)
Quebec is an
EFL
context
Languages spoken at home
- 81.1% French, 10% English, and 8.9% other languages
(Statistics Canada, Census 2006)
Context

Juliane Martini
Marlise Horst
Concordia University
November 16, 2012 - SPEAQ Convention, Quebec
Are you teaching the right words?
(White et al., 2012)
Sec 5 – Vocabulary knowledge
Reading
Vocabulary knowledge




Students
match
definitions to target words in the text
Students answer
comprehension questions
which focus on target words
Students
match
words to a set of collocations
(Nation 2001)
How can I teach high frequency vocabulary in the classroom?
It takes students from 4-10 years to achieve cognitive academic language proficiency in a second language. Student at this stage will be near-native in their ability to perform in content area learning.
Need continued support from classroom teachers especially in content areas and in writing.
Stage V: Advanced Fluency
Vocabulary = 3,000 words . Can communicate with simple phrases and sentences, ask simple questions, that may or may not be grammatically correct, initiate short conversations with classmates, understand easy stories read in class with the support of pictures.
Sound out stories phonetically. Read short, modified texts in content area subjects. Complete graphic organizers with word banks. Understand and answer questions about charts and graphs. Match vocabulary words to definitions. Study flashcards with content area vocabulary. Participate in duet, pair and choral reading activities. Write and illustrate riddles. Understand teacher explanations and two-step directions. Compose brief stories based on personal experience. Write in dialogue journals.
Stage III: Speech emergence
0-6 months. Vocabulary = 1000 words. Speak in one- or two-word phrases. Use short language chunks (memorized, incorrectly used).
Ask yes/no questions, accept one or two word responses, have some whole class activities
Use pictures and realia to support questions, modify + simplify content information
Build vocabulary using pictures, provide listening activities.
Focus on key vocabulary and concepts.
Use simple books with predictable text.
graphic organizers, charts and graphs.
Writing: labelling and short sentences. Use a frame to scaffold writing.
Stage II: Early production
Silent period. Possible vocab = 500 words (receptive). May repeat after the teacher (parroting).
Listen attentively + may even be able to copy words from the board. Able to respond to pictures and other visuals.
Understand + duplicate gestures and movements to show comprehension. Total Physical Response.
Need much repetition. Benefit from a “buddy” who speaks their language.
Exhausted = receptive efforts.
Stage I: Pre-production
http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.php
Stages of vocabulary acquisition (ESL)
by Judie Haynes
Vocabulary = 6000 active words. Use more complex sentences when speaking and writing + express opinions and thoughts. Ask clarification questions.
Comprehension of literature increases. Use strategies from their native language to learn content in English.
Writing = many errors as Ss try to master the complexity of grammar and sentence structure.
Many students may be translating written assignments from native language.
should be expected to synthesize what they have learned and to make inferences from that learning. This is the time for teachers to focus on learning strategies.
Students in this stage will also be able to understand more complex concepts.
Stage IV: Intermediate fluency
Stages of vocabulary acquisition (ESL)
by Judie Haynes
www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.php
opposite of 'together' = ...
...ment
Any ideas?
Step 5: Spelling / pronunciation practice, games and learning activities:
www.vocabulary.com
www.quizlet.com
www.spellingcity.com
Step 6: Testing: www.discoveryeducation.com
www.lextutor.ca; www.vocabulary.com
HOW?
Step 1: 1000 words list
Step 2: Definitions: www.vocabulary.com
www.dictionary.com
Step 3: Picture dictionary / Flashcards:
www.quizlet.com
www.google.ca/images
Step 4: Sentences / quotes:
www.quotationpage.com
HOW?

PRODUCTIVE

RECEPTIVE
1. Spelling and Pronunciation
2. English definition
3. French translation
4. Picture
5. Sentences
6. Pronunciation practice
7. Spelling practice
8. Sentence building
9. Games
10. Crosswords
This is what my students say…
Step 5: Spelling / pronunciation practice, games and learning activities:
www.vocabulary.com
www.quizlet.com
www.spellingcity.com
Step 6: Testing: www.discoveryeducation.com
www.lextutor.ca; www.vocabulary.com
HOW?
Step 1: 1000 words list
Step 2: Definitions: www.vocabulary.com
www.dictionary.com
Step 3: Picture dictionary / Flashcards:
www.quizlet.com
www.google.ca/images
Step 4: Sentences / quotes:
www.quotationpage.com
HOW?

PRODUCTIVE

RECEPTIVE
1. Spelling and Pronunciation
2. English definition
3. French translation
4. Picture
5. Sentences
6. Pronunciation practice
7. Spelling practice
8. Sentence building
9. Games
10. Crosswords
This is what my students say…
- Skip pronunciation at
early levels
of learning
- Establish semantic concepts first, leave articulation for later on (
more advanced
)
- In other words: receptive does not need articulation
- Combine
both receptive +productive
techniques
- Students’ ideas: f
orm images
of the word in their heads (personal link, easy access)
- Use
cognates
as keywords (they share accoustic and orthographic similarities between L1&L2)
Solutions:
Keyword method – helps form semantic links (meaning)

Example:

‘teller’ (Germ.)
= ‘plate’ (English)
-
‘imagine a fortune-teller with a silver plate in front of her’

-

The better the keyword, the better the learning
-
Foreign word should sound like L1 keyword (and not vice-versa)
Receptive learning
- a semantic equivalence between their L1 and L2 (
economy:
use the same conceptual mapping)

-
when they cannot find this equivalence → confusion and difficulty.

Example:
-
balle vs. ballon (Fr)
-
22 words to express ‘snow’ (Eschimo)
Learners expect:
In both receptive and productive skills
STM = storage skills (vocabulary)


STM >
frequency:
encountered more often<↔ LTM
STM → LTM phonologically
- Repetition
- Accoustic/phonological similarity
Productive learning
1. Identify new sounds: /th/, long vowels, tones, etc.
2. Develop new motor skills to produce new sounds.

Less overlap between L1-L2 → more difficulty in receptive + productive learning

Solution: loud repetition (faster learning + better retention than silent rote repetition)
Repetition is
a MUST
for memorizing speech material
Pronunciation learning
Advanced learners
: by semantic association (meaning)



Beginners:
by orthographic and phonetic association (form and sound)
How new words are learned
by Nick C. Ellis, Alan Beaton

Language Learning 43:4, Dec. 1993, pp. 559-617
Psycholinguistic Determinants on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning
Reading
>
phonological awareness
Reading
>
spelling
Reading
>
STM


‘Matthew effect’:
the more you know, the easier it is to learn more vocabulary.
L1-L2
(common origin, borrowings › different)
Orthographic similarity
(similar › different alphabets)
Phonological structure
(phoneme sequential probability)
Sound-letter encoding
(similar › different)
Length of words
(short › longer)
Part of speech
(nouns › adj › adverbs › pronouns › fct. words › verbs)
Morphological features
(pl, possession, m/f)
Imageability
(concrete › abstract) (image › definition)
Semantic fields
(space, color, size, temperature, division of day, kinship, body parts, visible/invisible, intensity, etc.)
Frequency of exposure
(more → better & faster)
Factors for ease of learning
Full transcript