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The Age of Jefferson: 1800-1816
Transcript of The Age of Jefferson: 1800-1816
Offers a model for dealing with partisanship. Supports respect for different opinions and compromise while still pushing a partisan agenda when necessary: The Revolution of 1800 Jefferson’s Republicanism and Ideals Louisiana Purchase Motivations for the Purchase Lewis and Clark Expedition John Marshall and the Power of the Supreme Court Keeping the Peace: Troubles in foreign affairs
Barbary pirates Strict Intepretation of the Constitution Limited Central Government 2. Controversy 3. Consequences Navigation of MS River and control of Port of New Orleans is crucial to developing nation and the western frontier Negotiations "We are all Republicans. We are all Federalists." Reduce the army and navy Abolish the Whiskey Tax Reduce the national debt James Monroe sent to France to negotiate for New Orleans and part of FL for $10 million Napoleon offers the entire LA territory for just $15 million.
13.5 cents/acre Haitian slave rebellion led by Toussaint L'Overture Anticipating war with GB and in need of quick large sum of $$$$ Why??? Controversy Louisiana Purchase Significance of LA Purchase Nearly doubled size of U.S.
Secured access to Mississippi River and Ohio River Valley
Paved the path for westward expansion
Constitutionality- nowhere does it state that the fed govt has the power to purchase foreign territory. ` Embargo Act of 1807 chesapeake-leopard affair Laissez-Faire= Hands-off Chief Justice (1801-1835) Leading Federalist
Most powerful & influential Chief Justice Allow Alien and Sedition Acts to expire Replaced Federalists in office Hamilton's financial policies, including National Bank Washington's foreign policy of neutrality Continuation of Federalist Policies Republican Changes Simplicity Lewis and Clark Expedition Purpose:
Study the Native American tribes, terrain and wildlife Determine if there was a significant threat from British and French Canadian fur trappers TJ selected Capt Merriweather Lewis to lead expedition. Lewis selected Clark as partner. Later named Corps of Discovery. Major Achievements of the Mission Gained extensive knowledge of Western geography (maps, rivers, mtns) Observed hundreds of plants & animal species Opened diplomatic relations with natives Marbury v. Madison
William Madbury was on of Adam's "midnight judges," the president's last min appts before leaving office. TJ ordered Madison NOT to deliver Marbury's papers (commission) since they were not signed by midnight and he did not have to accept him as judge. Handed down decisions that expanded powers of federal govt at the expense of the states Shaped contemporary constitutional thinking Strengthened the power of the Supreme Court Landmark Supreme Court Case Judicial Review the Supreme Court has the power to declare laws unconstitutional. In 1804 Jefferson was reelected president by an overwhelming margin, receiving all but 14 of the 176 electoral votes. Jefferson’s Reelection Aaron burr conspired with James Wilkinson to try and separate the Western States south of the Ohio River into an independent confederacy.
He wanted to obtain western Florida and gain control of Mexico for himself.
Wilkinson backed out of the conspiracy and reported Burr to President Jefferson. Jefferson had Burr arrested and tried for treason. A jury acquitted Burr due to the definition of treason. Aaron Burr Conspiracy
Rather than pay this sum, Jefferson sent a small fleet of U.S. naval vessels to Mediterranean. Sporadic fighting with Tripoli lasted for four years (1801-1805).
U.S. navy did not win a decisive victory but gained some respect and also offered protection to U.S. vessels trading in Mediterranean waters. Difficulties Abroad Outcome: The court ruled that Madison was wrong in denying Marbury his commission but rejected his request based on the premise that the Judiciary Act of 1789 (in which Congress modified the original jurisdiction of S.C. to include writ of mandamus) was unconstitutional, thereby establishing JUDICIAL REVIEW Removed French presence in North America Republicans began to accept loose intepretation Set precedent for future purchase of territory
Madison (Democratic Republican) vs. Charles Pinckney (Federalist)
Madison won but Federalists gained seats in Congress due to unhappiness with the embargo. Madison Presidency
Response to continuing economic hardships
Congressman Nathaniel Macon introduced a bill to restor U.S. trade w/Britain and France.
Macon’s Bill No. 2 provided that if either Britain or France formally agreed to respect U.S. neutral rights at sea, then the U.S. would prohibit trade with that nation’s foe. Commercial Warfare
Americans were becoming increasingly more split on how to handle these problems. Leading up to the War of 1812
#1: Impressments and the Violation of Neutral Sea Rights A Divided Nation
Election of 1812 – Republican strength in the South and West overcame Federalist and antiwar Republican opposition to war in the North. Madison won reelection, defeating De Witt Clinton of NY the candidate of the Federalist and Anti-war Republicans.
Opposition to the war – Those Americans who opposed the war viewed it as “Mr. Madison’s War” and the work of the war hawks in congress. Most outspoken in their criticism of the war were three groups:
New England Merchants – Because after the repeal of the Embargo Act they were making big money and the British Impressments were a minor inconvenience.
Federalist Politicians – Republican scheme to conquer Canada and Florida with the ultimate aim of increasing Republican voting strength.
Quids or “Old Republicans” – violated the classic Republican commitment to limited Federal Power and to the maintenance of peace. War of 1812
British empire in Canada hurt American trade opportunities.
U.S. had more land forces than Navy forces and could not effectively fight Britain’s Navy. BUT Britain’s best land fighting forces were in Europe fighting Napoleon.
U.S. population was greater than the Canadian.
Large number of Americans living in Canada already = help. War of 1812
In 1814 the leading Federalists held the Hartford Convention, advocating for:
States’ rights and nullification
Constitution be changed to require 2/3 vote in Congress to admit new states or declare war.
Hinted at secession War of 1812 War of 1812
Put a halt to the fighting.
Return of all conquered territory to the prewar claimant.
Recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the U.S.
The treaty did not mention the seizure of American ships and the impressments of American sailors. However, since the European war was over, these issues were no longer crucial. War of 1812
Having now survived two wars with Britain, the U.S. gained the respect of other nations. War of 1812 The Election of 1808 1809–1816 Father of the Constitution Brilliant thinker and statesman Weak public speaker- wife Dolly Madison was his extroverted other half, beloved socialite and First Lady Presidency plagued by the ongoing European conflicts Results and Effects Due to unavailability of British goods during wartime blockades, U.S. manufacturing and industrial self-sufficiency increased.
War heroes such as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison would soon be in the forefront of a new generation of political leaders.
Without British allies, Native Americans were forced to surrender large areas of land.
Growing sense of nationalism.
Talk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the South. Came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British Empire. Talk of seccesion and opposition to the war marked the end of the Federalist party on a national scale. The War of 1812 Causes Free seas and trade- British Navy in American water Belief that the British in Canada were arming the Indians and inciting raids Tecumseh and Prophet #3: American ambitions to annex Canada and Florida. The Hartford Convention Diplomacy vs. War Napoleon promised that France will
accept the provisions of Macon's Bill to respect neutral rights.
Taking Napoleon at his word, Madison placed on embargo on U.S. trade with Britain (1811).
Can we trust Napoleon? NO!
Napoleon had no intention of fulfilling his promise.
The French continued to seize American merchant ships despite their emperor’s deceitful pledge to the U.S. Northern Campaign: Invasion of Canada The Battle of New Orleans The Treaty of Ghent- 1814 Jeffersonian Architecture American Form of Neo-Classical/Neo-Palladianism Blending new and old, Greek and Roman Dome with simple columns Jeffersonian flair- Use of octagon
Dome at Monticello
Whole house at Poplar Forest Sacagawea York Clark's Slave Shoshone Woman, Interpreter and Guide Kidnapped in a battle with the Hidasta at 12 Sold into marriage with Canadian trapper Toussaint Charbonneau Husband and pregnant Sacagawea are hired as interpreters by the Corps Her presence became a symbol of peace during their travels ` Jefferson's Second Term and Madison too Jefferson's First Term To protect U.S. merchant ships from being seized by Barbary pirates, Presidents Washington and Adams had reluctantly agreed to pay tribute to the Barbary gov’t. Aaron Burr Conspiracy Foreign Affairs Barbary Pirates Chesapeake-Leopard Affair Embargo Act Mr. Madison's War The War of 1812 Causes Effects Major Battles Controversy he election of 1800 was both hotly contested and
constitutionally problematic. Both Iefferson and
Aaron Burr received severity-three electoral votes from
their Democratic-Republican Supporters.A Adams re~
ceived sixty-five. But Burr didn’t accept the fact that
the intent was for him to be Vice~President, so the
question of who would be elected President needed to
be resolved by the House of Representatives. After
thirty-five separate Votes in the House, Thomas jeffer-
son was elected by the slimmest margin in history.
(Soon after, Congress drafted the Twelfth Amendment
which provided that electors cast separate ballots for
President and for Vice-President.) Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810) Napoleon’s Deception James Madison
4th U.S. President Chesapeake-Leopard Affair Maintaining Neutrality Off coast of Norfolk US ship British ship Chesapeake capt refuses search Leopard fires 3 Americans killed, 18 wounded Jefferson resisted war fever but suffered politically Form of "peaceable coercion," TJ convinced Congress to pass act that prohibited all foreign trade. Spurs public outrage and cries for war Monticello UVA Rotunda Poplar Forest Jefferson believed that architecture was the heart of the American cause. In his mind, a building was not merely a walled structure, but a metaphor for American ideology, and the process of construction was equal to the task of building a nation.
The architecture of any American building should express the American desire to break cultural--as well as political--ties to Europe. For example- In the design of his "academical village," Jefferson envisioned a democratic community of scholars and students coexisting in a single village which united the living and learning spaces in one undifferentiated area Pediments Symmetrical wings American materials- Red Brick with white painted columns Last act of presidency was the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809- restored foreign trade with everyone BUT GB and France Power rests in people and states Agrarian America Nervous that purchase would hurt political future of party as the new territory would fall under dem-rep control. Seen as hypocritcal bc of belief in strict intepretation of Constitution and small govt. Moral Dilemma for TJ Federalist Objections + 50 others Like Sacagawea, York was essential in promoting diplomatic relations Well-liked by natives on journey Hard labor, no pay
“War Hawks”= in 1810 Southern and Western voters, led by John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (KY) elected a group of pro-war Democratic-Republicans to Congress. They demanded war against Britain to acquire Canada and against Spain to acquire Florida.
Farmers in the West and South American resentment of Britain, dating back to the Revolutionary days. #2: Conflict with Native Americans Battle of Tippecanoe Portico France gained control of LA territory in 1800 from Spain.
Spain= France =
Nervous about future prospects of
expansion Non-Intercourse Act "a dangerous man, and one who ought not to be trusted with the reins of government." The insult that led to a deadly duel Hamilton in regards to Burr, 1804 Devastated the economy, esp. shipbuilders in N.E. Movement for secession builds in N.E. 1. Identify significant objects in this image, paying particular attention to the turtle, barrel, and ship. What do these objects symbolize?'
2. How does the text relate to the embargo?
3. Imagine this is a document on the DBQ. How would youi use it to address the following question:
Early U.S. foreign policiy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or actual threats from Europe. Assess the validity of this generalization with referance to major issues of U.S. foreign policy during the period from 1789-1825 Pro War Anti-War Quids= Old Republicans, support strict interpretation and adherence to neutrality in foreign policty New England federalists and merchants Constitution, "Old Ironsides" Battle of Lake Erie by Capt Oliver Hazard Perry Off coast of Nova Scotia, Boosts Morale Naval Victories Battle of Thames River by William Henry Harrison Tecumseh killed Battle of Lake Champlain by Thomas Macdonough War of 1812 Chesapeake Campaign Washington DC
The British invaded Chesapeake Bay, captured Washington, D.C., burned many government buildings, and then advanced on Fort McHenry at Baltimore Fort McHenry
Fort McHenry withstood the British bombardment inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. The Federalists arguments were similar to the Democratic-Republican statements in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
Almost immediately after the Hartford Convention, the nation learned of Jackson’s triumph at New Orleans and of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. The Federalists were accused of treason for having opposed the war, and soon afterwards the Federalist Party went out of existence. Battle of Tippecanoe Tecumseh and the Prophet Shawnee brothers who sought to unite the Native American tribes in a confederation to resist further loss of land. (Since Jamestown, tribes had been pushed or tricked into selling their land) William Henry Harrison Governor of Indiana Territory, sees the brothers as a threat "one of those uncommon geniouses that spring up occusionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established order of things. Leads an attack on the Tippecanoe River and Tecumseh flees to Canada. After leading the U.S. in the Battle of Horshoe Bend (Alabama) to defeat the Creek Nation (British ally), General Andrew Jackson continues path of military victory in the Southern campaign with his overwhelming victory in New Orleans.
Andrew Jackson becomes an instant national hero.
With modern methods of communication, but battle would not have been fought, since a peace treaty had already been signed in Europe.