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APUSH Review

Review of Important Topics, People, and Concepts

Britt Christensen

on 25 March 2014

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Transcript of APUSH Review

APUSH Review!
May 14th, 2014 is
the BIG DAY!
1) Massachusetts Bay Colony

2) Jamestown

3) Roger Williams
Puritans (1629)
John Winthrop/"City Upon a Hill"
Families, religious and political participation
Captain John Smith (1607)
Struggled at the beginning, saved by tobacco
Single men, indentured servants, slave labor
Supported separation of church and state
Forced to leave, settled in Rhode Island
Which of the following was a direct result of Bacon's Rebellion?
A) Southern colonies began to farm tobacco as a staple export
B) A balance of power no long existed between Native Americans and colonists in New England
C) Southern labor shifted from African slaves and began to rely more on indentured servants
D) Southern labor shifted away from indentured servants and began to rely more on African slaves
E) Virginia transformed from a proprietary colony into a royal colony
4) Mercantilism
5) Quakers
6) Chesapeake Colonies
Export more than import
Policy of England towards colonies
William Penn/Pennsylvania
More tolerant than other colonies
Relied on slavery
Sugar cane plantations
Race based system
7) Middle Passage
8) Salem Witch Trials
9) Indentured Servant
Massachusetts (1691)
Women and men accused of witchcraft and executed
Sign of conflict between society and religion
Slave trade from Africa to the New World
Brought over 11 million slaves, 20% of whom died on the journey
Person who promised 7 years of work in the New World in exchange for passage and land once service was done
End of indentured servitude led to rise in the slave trade
The Puritans believed that the freedom to practice religion should be extended to:
A) Puritans only
B) All Protestants only
C) All Christians only
D) All Jews and Christians only
E) All inhabitants of the New World
10) First Great Awakening
12) Common Sense
(1720s-1750s) Rebirth of religion
Broadened religious options in the colonies
Encouraged an independent relationship with religion and weakened power of religious leaders
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
Break from Britain as "common sense"
11) Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains
Meant to end border disputes
Policy was ignored
The statement "taxation without representation is tyranny" was first proclaimed by:
A) Benjamin Franklin
B) John Hancock
C) Samuel Adams
D) John Dickinson
E) Patrick Henry
13) Thomas Jefferson
14) Republican Motherhood
15) Articles of Confederation
Author of the Declaration of Independence
3rd President of the United States
Shaped American government
Women had the responsibility to train future citizens
Encouraged education for women-not for political participation, but in order to pass along knowledge to children
First government of the new nation
Loose association, weak central government
More power to the states
Lacked power to tax, raise an army
The New Jersey Plan (for the Constitution) would most likely be supported by:
A) States with large populations
B) States with small populations
C) States that were mostly agricultural
D) States in the South
E) States in the North
16) Shay's Rebellion
17) James Madison
Massachusetts farmers unable to pay debts or state taxes closed the courts
Rebels were dispersed but rebellion highlighted the problems of a weak central government
18) Three-Fifths Compromise
Father of the Constitution and Bill of Rights
The Federalist Papers
4th President of the United States
Settled debate over counting slavery towards population
3/5 of slave population counted to determine representation
19) The Federalist Papers
Hamilton, Madison, Jay
Supported the Constitution as a measure to protect American liberties
Separation of powers prevents tyranny
20) Anti-Federalists
Believed the Constitution gave too much power to the national government
States' rights activists
Liberty and the common man
Demanded Bill of Rights
21) Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of the Treasury
Called for creation of the Bank of the United States
Jefferson bargain-national bank and national capital in the South
Killed in a dual with Aaron Burr
22) John Adams
Founding Father
2nd President of the United States
Unpopular, stubborn
23) Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson elected
New leadership-Republican party
Support of the common man
24) Marbury vs. Madison
Established principle of JUDICIAL REVIEW
Right to determine if an act of Congress violates the Constitution
25) Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson (1803)
More than doubled land owned by the U.S. government
Jefferson used implied powers of the Constitution
26) Embargo Act (1807)
British navy seizing American ships, forcing American sailors into British military service (impressment)
Ban on American vessels sailing for foreign ports
Devastated the American economy but had little effect on Britain or France
27) "King Cotton"
South's dependance on cotton production
Slavery as an economic measure
Growing division between the North and South
28) "War Hawks"
Supporters of war against Britain (War of 1812)
Strong nationalists
Support in the South, West because they were not as dependent on trade with Britain
29) Cult of Domesticity
30) Market Revolution
First half of the 19th century
Innovations in transportation and communication
Growth, development of the West
Growth of cities
31) Lowell, Massachusetts
Center of early textile manufacturing
Employed young, unmarried women
Constant supervision of workers' lives
32) Nativism
Caused by the rise in immigration in the 19th century
Feared impact on political and social life
Blamed immigrants for problems in society
33) Ralph Waldo Emerson
Stressed individuality and personal discovery
Removing oneself from public "restrictions"
Belief that a woman's place was in the home
Virtue=beauty and dependence on men
A source of "comfort"
34) Missouri Compromise
Missouri-slave state
Maine-free state
Slavery prohibited in all remaining territory of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36 30'
35) Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Written by John Quincy Adams
U.S. would oppose colonization by European powers in Americas
U.S. would not become involved in wars in Europe
Warned European powers not to interfere with new independent states in Latin America
36) Andrew Jackson
Elected in 1828
Limited government
Support of the common man
Election showed the power of universal white male suffrage
"Jacksonian Democracy"
Indian Removal Act
Against the national bank
"King Andrew"
37) John C, Calhoun
Supporter of states' rights
Defender of southern sectionalism
Vice-President (1828)
"The union-next to our liberty most dear"
38) Nullification
Right of a state government to go against a decision of the national government
Central issue in states' rights debate
Intensified the sectional divide in America
39) Bank War
President Jackson's crusade against the Bank of the United States
Nicholas Biddle-head of the Bank
Democrats did not want to see any institution hold that much power
Vetoed by Jackson
Reflected both his distrust of centralized power but also assuming much power as President
40) "Paternalism" (in reference to slavery)
White owners actually protecting slaves
Providing slaves with clothes, place to live, method of being productive
Argument in support of slavery
41) Dorothea Dix
42) Horace Mann
43) William Lloyd Garrison
Fought to reform asylums for mentally ill
Help, treat, but not punish
Reform of public schools
Universal public education
Newspaper-The Liberator
44) Joseph Smith
Founder of the Mormon faith
Murdered in 1844
Followers, led by Brigham Young, eventually settled in Salt Lake City, Utah
45) Manifest Destiny
Belief that it was the fate of the United States to expand from sea to sea
Justified displacement of Native Americans
Led to many questions regarding slavery and states' rights
46) Wilmot Proviso (1846)
Proposed resolution prohibiting slavery in all territory gained from Mexico
Passed in the House but failed in the Senate
47) Free Soil Party
Formed in 1848
Opposed the expansion of slavery
Antislavery had become an important in politics
48) Compromise of 1850
California as a free state
Slave trade (but not slavery) banned in Washington, DC
Fugitive Slave Act
49) Stephen Douglas
Popular sovereignty-voters in states/territories would determine if slavery would or would not be allowed
Series of debates against Lincoln in Illinois in 1858
50) Republican Party (1800s)
Reflected economic and social changes
Antislavery Democrats, northern Whigs, Free Soilers
Free labor
End the spread of slavery, but not slavery itself
51) Bleeding Kansas
Popular sovereignty drew people to Kansas
City of Lawrence burned by proslavery mob
Preston Brooks beat antislavery Senator Charles Sumner with a cane
52) John Brown
Radical abolitionist
Organized assault on Harper's Ferry, VA
Wanted to steal weapons to arm slaves for a revolt
Brown was executed and became a martyr in the North
53) Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln (R)
Results split along sectional lines
Democratic candidates split the vote
54) Gettysburg
3 day battle in July, 1863
Confederate army would never again set foot on northern soil
Gettysburg Address
Beginning of the end for the Confederacy
55) 13th/14th/15th Amendments
Abolition of slavery
Citizenship/due process
Voting may not be restricted on the basis of race, color, or "previous condition of servitude"
56) William Tecumseh Sherman
Led the Union army's "March to the Sea"
Destroyed the South
Made it difficult to rebuild
57) Presidential Reconstruction
Andrew Johnson
Pardon to white southerners who took an oath of allegiance
Provisional governors and state conventions, elected by whites
New governments would have freedom to manage local affairs
Bring the nation together without punishing the South
58) Radical Reconstruction
Radical Republicans
Expanded powers of the government
Equal rights regardless of race
Divide land among former slaves
Punish the Confederacy
59) Susan B. Anthony
Women's rights
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Anger over being left out of the 15th Amendment
60) Carpetbagger/Scalawag
Post-Civil War
Carpetbaggers-moved to the South to benefit from rebuilding opportunities
Scalawags-white Republicans viewed as traitors to their race and region
61) Andrew Carnegie
Steel (Homestead, Pennsylvania)
Vertical integration-control every phase of the business from raw materials to transportation
Gospel of Wealth-rich had a moral obligation to promote the advancement of society
62) "How the Other Half Lives" by Joseph Riis
Account of the shocking urban living conditions
Photographs of tenement apartments and those living in the apartments
Opened eyes to the conditions faced by the working class
63) Frontier Thesis
Frederick Jackson Turner (1893)
The distinctive qualities of American culture were forged on the western frontier
Individual freedom, political democracy, economic mobility
West as a place of opportunity
64) Sitting Bull/Crazy Horse
Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
Defending tribal land in the Black Hills from invasion by General Custer
Gold was the motivation
65) Dawes Act (1887)
Broke up tribal land
Distributed some to Native American families
Rest auctioned off to white settlers
Natives who accepted the land had to adopt qualities of "civilized life"
Led to the loss of Native land and the erosion of culture
66) Gilded Age
Thin layer of prosperity covered up problems and corruption in society
67) Social Darwinism
"Survival of the fittest"
Those with the ability and skills to succeed in society will
Society benefits because the best rise to the top
68) Knights of Labor
Skilled and unskilled workers
Terence Powderly
8 hour workday, minimum wage
69) Haymarket
Chicago 1886
Strike at McCormick agricultural plant
Conflict between strikers and police
Bombs, shots fired
Labor movement portrayed as dangerous and violent
70) Populism
"People's Party," farmers, against corruption and economic inequality
William Jennings Bryan and the Cross of Gold Speech
Direct election of senators
Government control of money supply-SILVER standard
Graduated income tax
Support of labor unions
Public ownership of railroads

71) Jim Crow Laws
Segregation in the South following the Civil War
Voting restrictions
Violence and lynching
Plessy v. Ferguson-separate but equal

72) Booker T. Washington
Economic self-help
Individual advancement
Work to uplift selves
Focus less on political agitation
Obtain farms, skilled jobs
Tuskegee Institute

73) Yellow Journalism
Sensational, exaggerated reporting
William Randolph Hearst
Joseph Pulitzer
Spanish-American War

74) Platt Amendment
Authorized the U.S. to intervene militarily in Cuba whenever it saw fit
75) American Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers
Skilled workers
Feared loss of worker freedom and importance with the rise of industrialization

80 multiple choice questions
2 FRQs
55 minutes
60 minutes
70 minutes
Full transcript