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World Health Organization Presentation
Transcript of World Health Organization Presentation
19th century invasion of yellow fever in Europe
Jamaal Marshall The International Sanitary Conferences Established between 1851 and the end of the century.
Conferences deliberated upon quarantine regulations to deal with plague,
Cholera, yellow fever, and " any other disease reputed to be importable."
History and Background Annual Budget Article 57 of the US Constitution states:
1. The various specialized agencies, established by intergovernmental agreement and having wide international responsibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Article 63.
2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized agencies.
Organizational Structure WHO Headquarters Structure
Office of the Director-General (ODG)
Governing Bodies (GBS)
Internal Oversight Services (IOS)
Legal Counsel (LEG)
United Nations Coordination
WHO Offices at the:
African Union, Addis Abeba (WAC)
European Union, Brussels (WEU)
United Nations, New York (WUN)
The WHO Regional Office for Africa is located in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. The Regional Office is headed by the WHO Regional Director for Africa, who is elected for a period of five years by the delegates from African Member States during the Regional Committee and endorsed by the WHO Executive Board. (1949) Original programs included:
- Women’s and children’s health
- Environmental sanitation
(2009) Now expanded to include:
- Safety guidelines for genetically modified foods
- Adaptation to climate change
- Reducing tobacco and drug abuse
- Road safety
(2009) Further expansion to incorporate social determinants of health, including:
Targets Strengths Strengths
-Encourages worldwide technical cooperation in health matters
-With over 180 Member States, WHO has one of the highest memberships of any UN agency
-Since its foundation, WHO has been the world leader in formulating professional consensus, setting international technical norms, and defining health care standards.
-Who has several programs coordinated with other agencies, such as immunization with the United Nations Children’s Fun (UNICEF), and family planning with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
-Each member has one vote, regardless of financial contribution or population density
-Coordinated, constantly updated, international classification of diseases.
-Unlimited range of programs to deal with health disparities.
Weaknesses -World Health Organization international guidelines for health emergencies lack enforcement.
WHO guidelines on tuberculosis in air travel are very clear, that a person with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (Andrew Speaker) should not travel on commercial airlines unless they have been declared uninfectious. The WHO may communicate this to the CDC in order for a person to be placed on a no fly list. But the CDC cannot stop a person from leaving the country, they can only stop them from reentering.
-Lack of enforceable sanctions
If a country fails to explain why it has adopted more restrictive traffic and trade measures than those recommended by WHO, no legal consequences follow.
Funding for WHO is provided by the many member countries, but it is based on a country’s ability to pay. So the bulk of the funding is provided by a small percentage of countries.
Perspective on how the organization contributes to the larger public health mission and community Not these guys We mean these guys Contributions by: The International Sanitary Conferences
-Established in 1851 in France
-Conferences deliberated upon quarantine regulations to deal with plague, cholera, yellow fever, and "any other disease reputed to be importable."
The Office International d'Hygine Publique (The International Office of Public Hygiene)
-Established in 1907 with headquarters in Paris
-First truly international public health organization
-Biological standardization, hospital construction, and food hygiene,
to prevent the spread of cholera and plague.
The Pan American Sanitary Organization
-Established in 1902 with headquarters in Washington D.C.
-Dealt with quarantine, hygiene, sanitary education, and endemic diseases such as leprosy.
The Health Organization of the League of Nations
-Established in Geneva in 1921, as the outcome of a clause that added the inclusion of a health organization with the League of Nation’s administrative structure.
-Battled typhus in Poland and Eastern Europe
-Studied the prevalence of malaria and tuberculosis
Pre and Post-World War II
-After WWII, only the Pan American organization survived
-The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration filled in
the gaps by combating epidemics and providing medical supplies
-Government officials gathered at the end of the war to form the United Nations
The World Health Organization is Born
-In March of 1946, a committee met in Paris to determine the structure of WHO
-World health programs were proposed as a matter of urgency
-26 members of the United Nations accepted the constitution.
-The last of the 26 signatures was received on April 7, 1948, which is celebrated as the birthday of WHO
-In 1949, the first year of operations for WHO, The budget was 5 million US dollars
-WHO’s approved budget for the biennium of 2008–2009 was 4.2 billion US dollars
-Available funds distributed for implementation in the biennium were 4.6 billion US dollars, including funds received in 2006–2007 for use in 2008–2009
-A total of 3.9 billion US dollars (92% of the approved budget) was implemented (i.e. US $3.8 billion expenditure and US $0.1 billion encumbrance)
Annual Budget (continued)
-The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations has become WHO’s primary donor for its emergency work
-In 2010, WHO received grants for a total of 49 million US dollars
-CERF funds have supported emergency health activities in more than 63 countries between 2006 and 2010
-The annual budget in 2009 was close to 5 billion US dollars
Annual Budget (continued)
-The World Health Assembly (WHA) is responsible for electing WHO’s director-general and approving its budget
-The organization’s regional offices enjoy a great deal of autonomy
-PAHO gets additional funding from separate dues from its regional members and has programs separate from WHO, such as its own buying fund
-Regional offices receive funds from their constituent nations
-915 million US dollars of assessed contributions and miscellaneous income
-893 million US dollars of the assessed contributions from member states
-2.4 billion US dollars of voluntary contributions (from countries, specialized agencies, and partners)
Regional Activities Hi, our presentation will be about WHO. Regional Offices
-WHO Regional Office for Africa
-WHO Regional Office for the Americas
-WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
-WHO Regional Office for Europe
-WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia
-WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific
The Structure of WHO's Regional Office for Africa Zsuzsanna Jakab (Europe); Copenhagen, Denmark Dr. L. Sambo (Africa);
Brazzaville, Congo Dr. Mirta Roses (The Americas); Washington D.C. Dr. Hussein Abdel-Razzak Al Gezairy (Eastern Mediterranean); Cairo, Egypt Dr. Samlee Plianbangchang
New Delhi, India Dr. Shin Young-soo
Manila, Phillipines Dr. Margaret Chan,
Director-General Dr. Anarfi Asamoa Baah,
Deputy Director-General Description of Programs, Services, Target Populations, Outcome Goals, Functions, and Practices Targets:
1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day
2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a
full course of primary school
4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at
all levels of education no later than 2015
5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
6: Reduce the maternal mortality ratio by ¾ in 2015
7: Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
8: Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major disease
9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resource
10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation
11: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
Issues that Gave Rise to the Organization
-Early 19th century invasion of yellow fever in Europe
Jamaal Marshall Authorizing Legislation The WHO fulfills its objectives through its 6 core functions:
- Providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed
- Shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge
- Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation
6 core functions (continued):
- Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options
- Providing technical support, catalyzing change, and building sustainable institutional capacity
- Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trend
One of the WHO’s most proud accomplishments has been the eradication of smallpox in the world
- The first proposal for global eradication was made to the World Health Assembly by the USSR in 1958. However the results were disappointing
- The World Health Assembly decided to intensify the eradication program by providing a special budget of $2.4 million per year specifically for this effort.
WHO currently has large campaigns for the reduction in rates of:
TB Global Prevalence Sources
WHO-its people and offices . (2011). Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.who.int/about/structure/en/index.html
Regional office of africa. (2011). Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.who.int/about/regions/afro/index.html
Charles,J. 1968. Origins, history, and achievements of the World Health Organization. British Medical Journal. 2. Pp293-296. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1985854/pdf/brmedj02082-0061.pdf
About WHO (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from: www.who.int
Program Budget (2009). World Health Organization: Performance Assessment Report. Retrieved