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Nonverbal Communications (Ch.6)
Transcript of Nonverbal Communications (Ch.6)
Messages expressed by nonlinguistic means
Creating and Maintaining Relationships
All behavior has communicative Value
It is impossible not to communicate
We are like transmitters
Not all behaviors will be interpreted accurately but they all have the potential to create messages.
Is Primarily relational
Serves in a series of social functions.
Demonstrates the relationship we have with others or want to have with others.
Is better suited to express attitudes and feelings than it is ideas.
More ambiguous than verbal statements.
Because the possibilities for interpretation are many we need to be cautious about our responses.
Use the perception-checking approach.
*Request for clarification
Influenced by Culture and Gender
Many cultures have different nonverbal and verbal languages.
Clear meanings (Nodding of the head up and down, side to side head shake, shrug of shoulders)
Different meanings in many cultures.
Can have universal meanings
Females are more nonverbally expressive
*Use more facial expressions
*Use more head, hand, and arm gestures
*Touch others more
*Make more eye contact
Important in creating and maintaining relationships.
First stage of a relationship we aim to reduce uncertainty.
Observe facial expressions, eye contact, posture, gestures, and tone of voice.
Displays of affection such as sitting close, holding hands, winks and gazes, are strongly connected to satisfaction and commitment in romantic relationships.
Nonverbal regulators are cues that help the flow of communication between people.
Listener typically looks more at the speaker
When the speaker seeks a response from the listener he or she usually signals by looking at the listener creating a brief period of mutual gaze called a "gaze window."
The way we look, act, and sound can influence the way others perceive us.
it can capture people's attention, show or increase liking, generate power, and boost credibility.
Not completely truthful.
Saving the "face" of the communicators involved.
High self-monitors are better at hiding their deception.
Some clues that might reveal a dishonest person.
* Make more speech errors: Stammers, stutters, hesitations, false starts.
* Pause longer before offering answers
* Pupils tend to dilate because of the arousal associated with lying.
Important in creating impressions and getting others to view us how we want to be seen
Ways for managing identity:
Face & Eyes (Kinesics)
Kinesics- the study of how people communicate through body movements.
The face and eyes are the most complicated to interpret.
First it's hard to describe the number and kind of expressions
Example: Researchers have found that there are:
At least 8 of distinguishable positions for the eyebrows and forehead,
8 for the eyes and lids.
And 10 for the lower face.
Oculesics- study of how the eyes can communicate.
Example: Showing interest is shown when a person gazes or glances. Interest varies in different ways.
Interest can be keeping an eye on someone or expressing attraction aka "making eye"
Eye contact gives off positive effects
Posture can reveal how people feel about themselves and others.
English language indicates the deep links between posture and communication:
"Don't be so uptight!"
"Take a load off your back"
"You're all wrapped up in yourself."
Examples of Interpreting:
People who feel weighed down by a problem hunch over dramatically.
Expansive pose with hands on hips, feet propped on a desk, or hawk-like stances are signs of power status.
Power posing: "fake till you make it".
Intentional: Thumbs up or cheery wave
Unconscious: Shrug meaning "I don't know."
Fidgeting- group of ambiguous gestures.
Manipulators- They are movements in which one part of the body grooms, massages, rubs, holds, pinches, picks, or manipulates another part.
Gestures can be seen as powerful and submissive. Powerful: pointing and head raising. Submissive: Head bowing and nodding.
Gestures increase persuasiveness!
Mirroring the audience. Making audience feel similiar
Using arm and hand movements, leaning forward, fidgeting less, and keeping limbs open increase effectiveness.
Paralanguage- the way a message is spoken
Vocal rate, pronunciation, pitch, tone volume, and emphasis can give the same word or words many meanings.
Ex: "This is a fantastic communication book." Emphasize different words.
Haptics- Study of touching
Touch boosts the chances of cooperation
Signing petitions: more likely to sign when touched lightly on the arm
Power of touch: increasing effectiveness
Larger tips: Servers that did fleeting touches on the hand or forearm resulted in bigger tips
Touching arm or forearm to suggest a meal makes it more likely the customer will order the suggested meal. This is the same with alcohol consumption.
Touch and gender: more appropriate for women
Touch goes with openness to expressing intimate feelings
Types Of Nonverbal Communication
Territory: A stationary area claimed by a person or animal
How you react to someone taking your area depends on the person
First day of class, every other seat is taken until they fill up then the middle seats are taken.
Chronemics: The study of how people use and structure time
*Express intentional and unintentional messages
*Depends on culture! Being late may be okay in some cultures but not in others
*The status of people makes it okay or not okay to be late
*Being as young as preschool we are judged by our physical appearance.
*The prettier girls get more attention for everything, while the not so pretty girls don't get as much
*Other people who associate with people who have physical attractiveness seems to have the benefits also
Types of nonverbal
10 types of messages clothing reveals:
1. economic level
2. education level
4. social position
5. level of sophistication
6. Economic background
7. Social background
8. Education background
9. Level of success
10. Moral character
We all make assumptions about people based on the way that they are dressed
The way that people live gives an impression on the way people think of them
The environment can shape the way that interaction takes place
Vocalized Pauses: Disfluencies- "um", "er", "uh", "like", "okay," and "ya know"
"Accent trumps race"- similar talking styles
Sarcasm- uses emphasis, tone of voice, and length of utterance to change the statements' meaning to the opposite.
Focus on paralanguage, not message
Unintentional Pauses- those times when people stop to collect their thoughts before deciding how best to continue their message
~ranges up to 18 inches
~18 inches-4 feet
~12 feet and out
~25 feet and out