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Step Up for Disaster Management
Transcript of Step Up for Disaster Management
society, and by the country at large; to strengthen public awareness; and to speed recovery. Vehicular-related Accidents Chemical Spill Technological KEY CONCEPTS RISK HAZARD VULNERABILITY SOCIETAL CHALLENGES IN THE PHILIPPINES Politics Economy Environment Malnutrition Inadequate Health Services Corruption Lack of Political Will & Interest Waste Management Agrochemicals Cyanide Fishing Illegal Logging the measure of the expected losses due to a hazard event occurring in a given area over a specific time period a dangerous condition or event, that threat or have the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment the extent to which a community, structure, services or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular hazard Earthquake GOALS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT There are contributing factors that make disasters happen, and cause and prolong damage to lives and properties. They are as follows: and and this is due to.. It is the range of activities designed to maintain control over disaster and emergency situations, and to provide a framework for helping at-risk persons to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster. Disaster management deals with situations that occur prior to, during, and after the disaster. A disaster is a result from the combination of hazard, vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential chances of risk. 1 Thoughts to Ponder Preparation through education is less costly than learning through tragedy. Max Mayfield Learn to sustain yourselves; lay up grain and flour, and save it against a day of scarcity. Brigham Young
Preparedness, when properly pursued, is a way of life, not a sudden, spectacular program.
Spencer W. Kimball Typhoon Drought Landslide Flood Volcanic Eruptions Socio-Economic-Political Red Tide Bomb Threat Hostage Kidnap Civil Disturbance • Every school must prepare a School Improvement Plan (SIP) integrating all the basic elements to provide for continuity of instruction.
• Conduct an inventory of existing and available alternative materials of all learning levels.
• Continuously update the alternative instructional materials through DepEd. School Disaster Management Committee Recommended Actions to Ensure
Continuity of Instruction During Disasters Disaster management is a process or strategy that is implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Preparedness and Mitigation (What to do before a disaster): Disaster management is a process or strategy that is implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Response
(What to do during a disaster): Disaster management is a process or strategy that is implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Disaster management is a process or strategy that is implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Rehabilitation
(What to do after a disaster): Every teacher at the school level shall:
• Identify the learning competencies/concepts to be covered during the period when classes are disrupted;
• Borrow adequate copies of the materials for the affected students;
• Orient the students and parents on what, when, why and how to use the given materials;
• Monitor the progress of the students during the period when classes are disrupted;
• Coordinate closely with the parents and other teachers of the affected students to ensure that the children are guided with
their assigned tasks. Every teacher at the school level shall:
• Conduct an inventory of damaged textbooks/equipment for possible
replacement and/or procurement;
• Conduct an assessment to determine the progress of the student’s learning.
The assessment results will serve as the starting point of the teacher to continue the lesson;
• Assess the effectiveness and appropriateness of the materials being
used by the students during this period of time;
• Recommend to the Division Office through the school head/district
supervisor other alternative materials that will address the needs of the
• Be responsible to account for and return borrowed materials to the Division Office for the use of other schools when the need arises. Adapted from
UNDP Disaster Risk Management Programme Points to be considered:
Presentation on the potential hazards a school can have Formation of the School Disaster Management
Committee & Groups The members of the School DMC shall have an understanding of the policy and planning principles, similar to that required for the development of curriculum or a student welfare policy. These members will help the school in preparation of the school disaster management plan. Earmark fund arrangements for carrying out preparedness and mitigation measures in the school through school funds, corporate sectors, civil societies and establishing linkages with various departments and organisations working in the field of disaster management. Get the school building assessed for the hazards identified and prompt remedial measures taken, as required. Look into the structural safety requirements of the school for various hazards (earthquake, fire, floods, cyclone etc.). Updating of the plans at regular intervals (at least once a year, and after any significant disaster) to ensure that the plan is workable. Carrying out the mock drill twice a year Evaluation of the school Disaster Management plan Identify separate shelter places for the school children and also for outsiders in case necessary Mobilising relief and any external support in case necessary for those who have taken shelter in the school (children and if outsiders) Media management to be carried out by the SDMC During a disaster the SDMC shall coordinate the groups and teams. Hazard identification and safety assessment Identification of Potential Structural Hazards existing in the area Inventory of resources available in the school Identification of Potential non-structural hazards existing in the area Preparation of the School Disaster
Management Plan document The physical location and demographic details of the school building and its surrounding environs Map showing nearest available critical resources Resource mapping showing the resources available within the school Vulnerability mapping and coping mechanisms showing the vulnerable location of the school building Safe places and evacuation route chart of the school Formation & Training of the
Disaster Management Teams Awareness Generation Team Evacuation Team Warning and Information Dissemination Team Search and Rescue Team First Aid Team DISASTER AWARENESS TEAM DISASTER RESPONSE TEAM Fire Safety Team Site Security Team Bus Safety Team Dissemination of the plan to everybody
in the school Conduct regular mock drills Evaluation and updating of the plan
to improve effectiveness References Department of Education. (2008). Disaster risk reduction resource manual. Retrieved June, 29 2012, from http://ph.one.un.org/response/clusters/education/DisReduction/
DRRR%20Manual%20Philippines.pdf School disaster management plan. (2011). Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.aurangabad.nic.in/htmldocs/SDMP_English_Abad.pdf Sensitisation meeting for awareness amongst
Teachers/ School Management And how can they do it Why the school should does these preparation What preparations a school should do for disaster management 2 3 Whether an event qualifies as a disaster often depends upon who is doing the defining. An airline crash is certainly
severe and costly, but the number of people affected is relatively small. What separates a
disaster from an accident, or incident, is its magnitude of need and of victims involved. Hunger is a growing world-wide phenomenon;
while it is a major
concern, it is often endemic, being addressed with different approaches. Only when hunger
becomes widespread and acute, in other words a famine, does the situation qualify as a
disaster. DISASTER TYPES Natural VS. Human Causes Natural Disasters They are caused by biological, geological,
seismic, hydrologic, or meteorological
conditions or processes in the natural
(e.g. cyclones, earthquakes, tsunami,
floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions). CDFCG Committees:
• Intelligence / Disaster Analysis Committee
• Plans and Operation Committee
• Communication and Warning Committee
• Rescue, Engineering and Evacuation Committee
• Physical Security Committee
• Documentation and Investigation Committee
• Fire Fighting Committee
• Action Group OFFICE OF CIVIL DEFENSE
PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE OF VOLCANOLOGY & SEISMOLOGY
PHILIPPINE RED CROSS PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT It is the process of preparing, in advance, to meet a future disaster which consists of
prevention, mitigation, and preparedness. Pre-disaster Planning Disaster Prevention is action taken to eliminate or avoid harmful natural phenomena and their
effects. Examples of prevention include cloud seeding to control meteorological patterns, pest
control to prevent locust swarms, erection of dams or levees to prevent flooding, etc. Mitigation is action taken to reduce both human suffering and property loss resulting from
extreme natural phenomena. Measures include land use planning, improved disaster-resistant
building techniques, and better agricultural practices. Preparedness encompasses those actions taken to limit the impact of natural phenomena by
structuring response and establishing a mechanism for effecting a quick and orderly reaction.
Preparedness activities could include pre-positioning supplies and equipment; developing
emergency action plans, manuals, and procedures; developing warning, evacuation, and
sheltering plans; strengthening or otherwise protecting critical facilities; etc. Preceding most disasters is a period of time during which it becomes obvious that something hazardous is going to happen. By monitoring events, they look for indicators that tell when, where, and what magnitude the event may be. This is known as prediction or forecasting. The objective is to provide disaster managers with enough information so they can give the people at risk adequate notice or warning to prepare for the disaster and, if necessary, to evacuate. Warning Phase This phase of disaster response involves actions that are necessary to save lives and reduce suffering. They include search-and-rescue, first aid, emergency medical
assistance, and restoration of emergency communication and transportation networks. Emergency Phase The transitional phase is a time period when people begin to return to work, to repair infrastructure, damaged buildings and critical facilities, and to take other actions necessary to help the community to return to normal. During this phase, emotional recovery occurs as families and individuals regroup and try to put their lives back in order. Rehabilitation The reconstruction phase of a disaster involves the physical reordering of the community and of the physical environment. During this period people reconstruct housing and other community facilities, and agriculture returns to normal. The actual time span is often very difficult to define. Reconstruction PHILIPPINES AS AN EARTHQUAKE COUNTRY As response to the occurence of natural and man-made disasters, there is a need to learn how to asses and report the disaster situation. The need for preparedness in damage assessment and reporting involves: The Philippine Archipelago lies between two major tectonic plates, the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The Philippines Sea Plate is moving towards the Philippine Archipelago at the rate of about 7 centimeters per year.
The Eurasian Plate is being subducted along the western side of Luzon and Mindoro at the rate of 3 centimeters per year except on Mindoro and northwest of Zamboanga where collision is taking place. At the intersection of these two plates is found the Philippine Fault Zone which decouples the northwestward motion of the Eurasian Plate. Movements along other active faults are responsible for the present-day high seismicity of the Philippine Archipelago.
The identified earthquake generators
in and along the Philippine Archipelago are the following:
b.East Luzon Trough
d.Collisional Zone between Palawan and Mindoro
f.Collisional Zone between Zamboanga Peninsula and Western Mindanao
j.Philippine Fault Zone and its many branches
k.Many active faults (e.g. Valley Fault System, Luban, Tablas, Casiguran
and Mindanao Faults) Philippine Seismicity
Our country’s geographic location makes it prone to earthquake occurrences. For the last 35 years, the Philippines had been affected by 10 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0. Hence, the likelihood of these destructive earthquakes occurring again in the future is indeed very strong.
At least 20 earthquakes per day occur in the Philippines. Based on the distribution of earthquake epicenters, the most seismically active part of the Philippines is the eastern section containing eastern Mindanao, Samar and Leyte with an average of 16 perceptible earthquakes per year. This is due to the active subduction processes going on along the Philippine Trench. EARTHQUAKE An earthquake is a weak to violent shaking of the ground produced by the sudden movement of rock materials below the earth’s surface.
The up and down, and sideways motion experienced during an earthquake can cause damage or collapse of structures such as buildings if not properly designed and constructed. To avoid the impact of ground shaking, structure must be built accordingly to the prescribed structural and building code. GROUND SHAKING Movement of a fault associated with a strong and shallow earthquake can cause displacement of the ground. People should avoid building houses or other infrastructures directly on top of a known or identified active fault trace. GROUND RUPTURE During an earthquake, loose, water-soaked, sandy materials below the earth’s surface lose strengthen when intensely shaken. Structures built on top of such materials may tilt or sink. Proper design and construction must be undertaken to prevent effects of liquefaction on structures. LIQUEFACTION Intense shaking during an earthquake could loosen materials on slopes of mountain and cause them to slide. Avoid building houses on beside or near very steep slopes especially those with loose soil cover. LANDSLIDE A tsunami is a series of giant sea waves commonly generated by an earthquake under the sea. This can cause danger along coastal communities. People living along coastal areas must immediately move to higher ground if any of the following natural signs is observed: (1) a felt earthquake; (2) sudden sea water retreat or rise; and (3) rumbling sound from approaching waves. TSUNAMI TSUNAMI As response to the occurence of natural and man-made disasters, there is a need to learn how to asses and report the disaster situation. The need for preparedness in damage assessment and reporting involves: A tsunami is a series of giant sea waves that can have heights greater than 5 meters. It is has been for so long erroneously called tidal waves and sometimes mistakenly associated with storm surges. Tsunamis are generated by under-the-sea earthquakes or near or shore earthquakes. Tsunamis can only occur when the earthquake is shallow-seated and strong enough to displace parts of the seabed and disturb the mass of water over it.
The coastal areas in the Philippines especially those facing the Pacific and South China Sea, may be affected by tsunamis that may be generated locally or from other countries.
On 16 August 1976, the Moro Gulf Earthquake produced tsunamis which devastated the southwest coast of Mindanao and left more than 3,000 people dead, with at least 1,000 people missing. More than 8,000 people were injured and approximately 12,000 families were rendered homeless by 5 meter-high waves.
The 15 November 1994 Mindoro Earthquake also resulted to tsunamis that left 78 casualties. This type of tsunamis are called locally generated tsunamis and can occur within a very short time of 3 to 5 minutes after the main earthquake. There will not be enough time for warning in case of locally generated tsunamis. VULNERABILITY + HAZARD Types of Hazards Physical Hazards
electrical hazards: frayed cords, missing ground pins, improper wiring
unguarded machinery and moving machinery parts: guards removed or moving parts that a worker can accidentally touch
constant loud noise
high exposure to sunlight/ultraviolet rays, heat or cold Examples: Limited access to resources
Illness and disabilities
Low income level
Political uncertainties/instability A community is said to be at "risk" when it is exposed to hazards, and is likely to be adversely affected by its impact. Types of Vulnerability Tangible/Material
(easy to see; value easily determined) People-lives, health, security, living
Property-services, physical property
loss, loss of use
Economy- loss of products and production,
Environment- water, soil, air, vegetation, wildlife Intangible/Abstract
(difficult to see; value difficult to determine) Social structures- family and community
Cultural practices- religious and agricultural
Cohesion-disruption of normal life
Motivation-will to recover; government response CAPACITY resources means and strengths which exist in households and communities and which enable them to cope with, withstand, prepare for, prevent, mitigate or quickly recover from disaster Types of Capacity
- Physical Capacity
-Socio-Economic Capacity EMERGENCY is a situation in which the community is capable of coping; it is a situation generated by the real or imminent occurrence of an event that requires immediate attention of emergency resources On the other hand A disaster is a situation in which the community
is incapable of coping. It is a natural or human-caused event which causes intense negative impacts on people, goods, services, and/or the environment, exceeding the affected community's capability to respond; therefore the community seeks the assistance of government and international agencies. Disasters are often classified according to their: Speed of Onset Sudden VS. Slow Human-Made Disasters These are emergency situations of which the principal, direct causes are identifiable human actions, deliberate or otherwise. Sudden Onset little or no warning, minimal time to prepare;
example: earthquake, tsunami, cyclone,
volcano eruption Slow Onset adverse event slow to develop; first the situation develops; the second level is an emergency; the third level is a disaster;
example: drought, civil strife, epidemic Health Unemployment Low Wages Allegiance to Terrorists Organizations Lack of Trained Health Workers Population Growth Drug Addiction Rise in Sickness/Diseases History of Disaster Management in the Philippines Filipino ancestors favored settlement sites that were close to water in their search for security and for food especially during the season of hunting and gathering. A barangay existed with well-defined rights and concept of utilization of the environment through communal ownership. Pre-Spanish Period Filipino ancestors have religious beliefs that link notions on natural phenomena and disasters. They worshiped myriad spirits especially the superior being called Bathala. Stone walls have been found in the province of Ifugao to protect the people from natural disasters. When old men predict the occurrence of disasters, they would postpone their work. For the Igorots, if a house was under construction, they would move it to another place if it were to rain. Spanish Period
In nearly 400 years of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines, the houses at this time were built of bamboo covered with palm leaves. These houses were also elevated for protection from the soil's humidity. At night, there were ladders put up for protection from wild animals.
The Spaniards created galleys and boats with oars which can help them bring the cargoes to heavier vessels. This was their way to protect themselves from water disasters. In 1865, Francisco Colina, a young Jesuit scholastic and professor of Mathematics and Physics at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila started a systematic observation of the weather. Other developments include:
>>Fr. Juan Vidal initiated to forewarn the public of approaching typhoon.
>>Federico Faura was designated to head the newly established observatory and he issued a typhoon warning for the first time on July 7, 1879.
>>Typhoon warnings were also issued with the help of an instrument called the Universal Meteorograph that was acquired at the Vatican Observatory in Rome.
Spanish rulers established an accounting of disaster events as they occurred. The accounts recorded between 1521 and 1898 were considered as one of the bases for the development of the current early warning system for various types of disasters. To guard themselves and their properties from powerful earthquakes, churches and houses were built of large bricks of stones.
During the revolutionary period, many Filipinos suffered and got injured. They were treated with first aid by Filipino women who were also members of the revolutionary group. The most famous among these women was Melchora Aquino, mother of the Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galangang, Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan.
American Period The American government started to introduce laws and institutions on disaster management. The scope of disaster management also widened when government plans also started to consider man-made disasters.
Commonwealth Period & Japanese Period During the Commonwealth period, President Manuel Quezon created the Civilian Emergency Administration by Executive Order 335 of 1941 in order to prepare the people for war in the Pacific. Moreover, various courses on First Aid were part of the school's curriculum and in different social clubs.
Philippines at Present Immediately after World War II, there were measures and strategies of response during war and national emergencies. The establishment of disaster management systems also came into existence. Through the years, more Filipinos involve themselves in disaster management from the government down to the barangays.
RULE 1040 OF THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH STANDARDS
which states that
each agency provide for the organization of disaster control groups/health safety committees in every place of employment and the conduct
of periodic drills and exercises in work places. LEGAL BASES EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 159,
SERIES OF 1968
mandates that all heads of departments, bureaus, ofﬁces, agencies, instrumentalities and political sub-divisions of the government, including all corporations owned and controlled by the government, the armed forces, government hospitals and public educational institutions to establish their respective disaster control organizations. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1566 OF JUNE 1978,
“Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Control, Capability and Establishing the National Program on Community Disaster Preparedness” stresses
on the hardships endured by our people due to a hostile environment and has continually sought survival against hazards, both natural and
human-made. Furthermore, the Decree stated the urgency of the need to direct, control and coordinate the manpower, material, monetary,
and spiritual resources of the entire Filipino nation to reduce the impact of hazards. Guiding Principles
The Department of Education has adopted the following guiding principles in disaster risk reduction
management in 2005 to implement the Hyogo
Framework for Action: Making Disaster Risk Reduction a Priority Knowing the Risks and Taking Actions Building Understanding and Awareness Reducing Risk Being Prepared and Ready to Act MAIN ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED CALAMITY, DISASTER & FIRE CONTROL GROUP (CDFCG) Disaster Education Schools play a vital role in the community, and are important elements of the values and culture of the society. A proper education through the schools not only teaches the children, but also reaches deep into the community through the parents and teachers. A safer school can save valuable lives of the children, can be used as a
temporary shelter after the earthquake, and can promote the culture of prevention and
mitigation through community activities. Thus, the importance of school in every aspect
of disaster cycle from pre-disaster mitigation to post-disaster rehabilitation can be
Teachers should lead the society to tackle effectively unpredictable situations . Therefore, teachers should be well trained in advance in the supposed to be roles of them in disaster management. Schools and teachers may become the key functionaries of
disaster prevention . Students, the future of any nation , must be taught thoroughly about the essentials of disaster management. They must be given opportunities to be able to grow for them to be part of changing and creating a better school, community and world. Disaster management is a process or strategy that is implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is clear that disasters are threats to the sustainability of communities, and often to the environmental resources that those communities depend on. Salter’s (1998) summary of the shifting emphasis in emergency management: From: To:
Focus on hazards Focus on vulnerability
Single agencies Partnerships
Response management Risk management
Planning for communities Planning with communities
Communicating to communities Communicating with communities. "Change the way you look at things and the things you look at change.”
― Wayne W. Dyer can help achieve.. As young leaders, YOU CAN influence
decision makers! How? Sustainable Development Reach out to people through social media! Produce Videos that feature the lives of great people who help in achieving a better
tomorrow! Capture Photos which project ways and means for a sustainable future! Use Facebook to "like" pages on sustainability,& create a group page! Create a Blog to share your opinions, and experiences about the kind of future you want! STEP 1: CHOOSE AN ISSUE
Ask yourself: “Why do I care about this issue??”
Write or draw a few notes about the issue and why it matters to you, your group and young people. If this problem were solved, who would it help? Why ?
Decision makers often focus on the “Big Picture”...Issues that affect everyone Health, Education, the Economy (Money), Peace and Security are likely to be priorities. STEP 2: FIND OUT WHO THE DECISION MAKERS ARE!
Find out who is in charge of decisions on this specific issue if you can. Use the internet, the local directory or by locating offices of decision makers and asking in person or writing a letter.
When thinking about WHO to contact, try to think back to the levels of decision makers (above) and who has the biggest influence. STEP 3: DECIDE HOW YOU WILL CONTACT THEM
Write a letter or email (1 page is enough). Send a petition (ask them to change something, and get other people to sign their name too).
Arrange to meet with them to discuss the issue (if possible with other people who support your idea)
Call them - if you can get their office telephone number, get a lot of people (your friends, your entire class/school/youth group) to call in and speak with the decision maker at a specific time, or leave a message to share their opinions on the issue. Write an issue! Speak before a crowd!
You can raise awareness by hosting events and giving presentations! Break down the ideas, present the facts and inspire people to join you. Join the National Youth Parliament! The NYP is a 3-day convention of youth leaders every two years wherein policy recommendations are formulated to address youth issues, and serve as government’s guide in policy formulation and program development. Started in 1996, youth leaders gather every two years to share ideas and gain valuable insights and networks to aid them in their youth development efforts. Check out the National Youth Commission Website: http://www.nyc.gov.ph/ The National Youth Commission envisions itself to be the policy authority on youth participation and the prime mover in inclusive youth development. Kobayashi, M., & Shaw, R. (2001). Role of schools in creating earthquake-safer environment. (n.d.). Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.preventionweb.net/files/5342_SesiRoleSchools
EQSafety.pdf Schramm, D., & Hansen, R. (1991). Aim and scope of disaster management: Study guide and course text. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from, http://epdfiles.engr.wisc.edu/dmcweb/AA02Aimand
ScopeofDisasterManagement.pdf Nath, B. (2006). Holistic approach to disaster management for a sustainable future. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495715.pdf Osamu, S. (2012). Education and disaster reduction. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.japanjournal.jp/home/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/1202e_06-10_CoverStory.pdf Dey, B., & Singh, R. (2006). Natural hazards and disaster management: A supplementary textbook in Geography for class XI on unit 11. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://cbse.nic.in/natural%20hazards%20&%20disaster%
20management.pdf The Australian Journal of Emergency Management. (2004). Sustainability and disaster management. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.em.gov.au/Documents/SustainabilityandDisasterManagement.pdf Chhabra, R. (n.d.). School disaster management plan. Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://ebookbrowse.com/school-disaster-management-planning-pdf-d231689063 National Youth Commission Website:
http://www.nyc.gov.ph/ Google Images Asian Disaster Preparedness Center. (2001). The Philippine disaster management story: Issues and challenges. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/21118439/THE-PHILIPPINE-DISASTER-MANAGEMENT-STORY and Among the various disasters, we will have
a further discussion on earthquake and tsunami. Toolkit for Sustainable Development Retrieved June 19, 2012, from Helen Gemma R. Vallejos-UNESCO. DISASTER EDUCATION Team for People with Special Needs Biological Hazards
blood or other body fluids
bacteria and viruses
animal and bird droppings Ergonomic Hazards
improperly adjusted workstations and chairs
awkward movements, especially if they are repetitive
repeating the same movements over and over
having to use too much force, especially if you have to do it frequently Chemical Hazards
liquids like cleaning products, paints, acids, solvents especially chemicals in an unlabelled container (warning sign!)
vapours and fumes, for instance those that come from welding or
flammable materials like gasoline, solvents and explosive chemicals. Adapted from
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual 2008 (Department of Education-Republic of the Philippines)