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RTI & IEP
Transcript of RTI & IEP
RTI or Response to Intervention
Tier 2 looks like:
Increased instructional time
Smaller groups (McLeskey, p46, 2013)
Used to bring students up to grade level.
Support services are provided by the classroom teacher or other school teachers and administration.
In addition to general education not a replacement.
Tier 1 looks like:
Using evidence-based instructional methods.
Integrated screening into daily activities.
Administered by the general education classroom teacher. (McLeskey, p.46, 2013)
Some students benefit from additional interventions and support, whether it be physical, social, academic or emotional support . RTI and IEP are both options that provide forms of extra support, which can range from adaptations, extra time or smaller class sizes.
IEP- Individualized Education Program
Tier 3 looks like:
Instruction provided by a specialist.
Smaller student to teacher ratio. (McLeskey, p.46, 2013)
RTI - Response to Intervention.
RTI is a framework set up to catch students who might be having a difficult time in an area and increase support as needed. Tier 1 in the RTI frame work is the entire class level. Using a "integrated screening process" helps teachers identify through the curriculum what students might benefit from additional help (McLeskey, p.46, 2013). Teachers are looking for "measurable terms, the gap between current and expected performance" and based off the findings, RTI is implemented (McLeskey, p.46, 2013). RTI is set up as a pyramid of services available to all students, Teachers monitor and evaluate their students frequently to identify students in need. When teacher notices a student is struggling, they are referred to move up in the RTI program. Students are frequently monitored. If they drop below a set cut off they are moved up the pyramid. (McLesky, p.46, 2013) The system provides more support if the student is not improving.
Imaged retrieved from: http://www.durandbulldogs.com/Pages/District/RTI/RtI.html
is the first level of instruction. This tier will reach the majority of students using evidence based instruction, which target a wide range of learners. Tier 1 instruction will be flexible and will contain "multiple means of presentation, expression and engagement: (McLeskey, p.47, 2013). Those student who do not show improvement at Tier 1 are moved up to Tier 2.
instruction is more focused with smaller groups of students. Tier 2 is also evidence based, as is Tier 1. Tier 2 works with students in a smaller student to teacher ratio and does so in a consistent manner. Students who are not showing progress with these evidence based practices are moved up the pyramid to Tier 3.
is the highest level of intervention and support for students in the RTI framework. Students in Tier 3 could work with a specialist teacher on a one to one basis to improve their skills. Students who are still struggling at this tier can be referred on to special education.
RTI is a prevention and intervention framework which is available to all students, with or without disabilities. RTI has the ability to increase support as the student needs it (McLeskey, p.46, 2013).
RTI is based on "integrated screening, identification and progress monitoring" by the teacher (McLeskey, p.46, 2013). Some RTI programs work with students who fall below a certain cut off, while other frameworks target students who are at risk of doing poorly (McLeskey, p.47, 2013).
An IEP is a plan that details the goals, modifications, and accommodations for a student with some form of special needs because of a disability. Special needs can be cognitive, behavioral, emotional or physical. (McLeksey, p.202,2013)
The benefits of RTI
Student success rate increase and students can stay in general education classrooms.
"Tiered intervention systems can increase the reading and math performance of at risk students" (McLeskey, p47-48, 2013).
Fewer students are referred for special education.
IEP or Individualized Learning Plan
An IEP is a personalized plan, to assist students and provided the needed accommodation and modifications for their disability. Students are referred to special education via a variety of ways. Teachers, doctors, parents, social workers, as well as others can refer a student to be evaluated for services. Students who do not make improvement with the three tiers of RTI, can be referred for services. After a referral is made the student will go through a process of assessments to determine if there is a disability. Student's ability is examined in several methods. Standardized tests, IQ test, along with statements from the teachers and parent are taken.
Special education evaluation looks at all aspects of a child.
Eligibility is the next step after the assessment process. Students must be found to have one of the 13 conditions listed in the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act). Disabilities can be physical, emotional, visual, cognitive and others. (DREDF., 2014)
Development of the IEP is the next step in the process. A team is gathered to create the IEP. The team consists of teachers, parents, school administration, and other staff who will help provide services. Occasionally, doctors, transportation staff and other specialist as well as the student are also present at an IEP meeting. (McLeskey, p.40, 2013)
Placement and implementation is the part of an IEP. IDEA requires that students be in the least restrictive environment possible. Students with and IEP can be placed in a general education class for the entire day or some students are placed in a self contained class. Their placement depends on where they can learn and make improvements with the least restriction. (McLeskey, p.39, 2014)
An IEP is reviewed yearly. All the involved parties that were present at the creation of the IEP attend the review. A yearly review is required under IDEA. (McLeskey, p.39, 2014)
Every IEP includes:
A statement pertaining to the current education and functional level of the student.
Goals or objectives that are measurable yearly. This includes benchmarks, outcomes or objectives which the student can work towards.
A list of services and/or aids that a student will receive.
A statement describing any portion of the class that the student is exempt from participating with students who are not disabled and other activities.
A statement pertaining to the students participation in any testing required by the district or school level.
Dates stating the start of all accommodations and services.
A statement explaining how teachers will assess the student and consistently infrom the parents or guardians on a regular basis.
(McLeskey, p.202, 2013)
Rights of Parents and Student
Students have the right to:
receive a "free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment" regardless of their disabilities (McLeskey, p.50, 2013)
have "procedural due process protection" (McLeskey, p.50, 2013)
Unbiased and nondiscriminatory assessment of student's ability
the ability to participate in IEP meetings and reviews.
regular updates and copies of the IEP
protection from discrimination
Possible ways of implementing the IEP in a general ed class:
wearing a microphone
arranging desks in a certain configuration
providing extra instruction
facilitating small groups
one on one instruction
using evidence based practices
reinforce lessons or tasks established by a special ed teacher
provide group work opportunities
provide opportunities for movement
These could vary depending upon the IEP requirements.
Services provided by special education:
More intense instruction
more direct instruction time
lower student to teacher ratio
organized class and material
consistent teachers and staff
shared resources and information
Tracking and assessments
regular appropriate assessments
regular monitoring of goals or objects
adjusting objectives if needed
(McLeskey, p.10, 2013)
Special Education provides many services. They can also be a reliable contact for resources. Special education can provide resources for a variety of things. Special ed can connect students and families with employment opportunities for students and possible housing arrangements. Special education could connect students with physical therapy agencies or reliable information on medication. Special education could also be a source of information about legal options or information about respite care.
DREDF (2014). The iep cycle. Retrieved from http://dredf.org/special-education/special-education-resources/the-iep-cycle/
Durand School District. (n.d.) Image of RTI triangle with percentages. Imaged retrieved from: http://www.durandbulldogs.com/Pages/District/RTI/RtI.html
McLeskey, J., Rosenberg, M. S., Westling, D. L. (2013). Inclusion: Effective practices for all students. Boston: Pearson.
Shapiro, E. S. (n.d.). Tiered instruction and intervention in a response-to-intervention model. Retrieved from http://www.rtinetwork.org/essential/tieredinstruction/tiered-instruction-and-intervention-rti-model