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The Cell

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Swag Hammer

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of The Cell

The Cell The Nucleolus The Nucleus Plasma Membrane Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Body Ribosome Lysosome Peroxisome Mitochondria
Numbers range from 1 to thousands
Has own DNA (similarities to Bacterial)
Generate almost all of Adenosine TriPhosphate
Used in cell differentiation and programmed cell death Centrioles Enclosed by a double membrane called the Nuclear Envelope
Contains most of the cell's genetic material
Regulates the gene expression of the cell; controls the cell
Contents are not uniform
Number of nuclear subbodies exist within, including the Nucleolus Primary function is the biogenesis of ribosomes
This is done by transcribing specific parts of the DNA within the nucleolus
RNA polymerase I and III work in unison to synthesize ribosomal RNA
Approximately 25% of the nuclear volume Made up of a phospholipid bilayer interspersed with proteins, both peripheral and channel proteins
Keeps voltage within the cell, which acts as a battery for the cell
Separates the cell from its surroundings
Selectively permeable
Nonpolar compounds can pierce the membrane
Channels have to let polar compounds through Smooth ER
Synthesizes lipids, steroids
Regulates Calcium concentration
Detoxifies drugs
Metabolizes steroids Rough ER
Ribosomes sporadically stud the membranes, attaching and detaching
Continuous with outer layer of nuclear envelope
Vesicles shuttle proteins to the Golgi Apparatus One of the larger organelles within the cell body
Modifies, sorts, and packs molecules
Determines which macromolecules are destined for secretion (exocytosis) or internal use
Primarily modifies proteins from the Rough ER
Creates Lysosomes Complex of proteins and RNA (ribonucleoprotein)
Catalyzes protein translation, or creation from amino acids
Found in every living cell
Are either Free (non-attached, floating in cytosol) or Membrane Bound (rough ER) Vesicles containing acidic Hydrolase (causes hydrolysis of chemical bonds)
Digest food taken in or worn out organelles that do not function as well
Contains enzymes that require 4.5 pH, which exists within the Lysosome
Lysosomes fuse with the vacuole when they are done digesting and taking in material
Frequently undergo autolysis Involved in catalysis of
Very long chain fatty acids
Biosynthesizes plasmalogens, integral to the nervous system and respiratory system
Operate the first step of Beta-oxidation Absent from higher, vascularized, plants and most fungi
Creates mitotic and meiotic spindles
Determines location of cilia and flagella in cells that have them Vacuole Large membrane enclosed organelles
Function is to store materials in the cell
Some function to pump out water (contractile)
Hold reserves of organic and inorganic compounds, including toxins Vesicles Small bubble within cell enclosed by lipid bilayer
Either formed naturally by endocytosis or artificially as liposomes
Can have multiple lipid bilayers (called multilammelullar)
Carry materials through the cell Cytoskeleton Scaffolding within the cell, helps with structure and transport within the cell
Vital in mitosis
Composed of actin filaments, micro tubules, and intermediate filaments
These three types of pathway work together to network the cell Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic The presence of a nucleus (absent in prokaryotes) differentiates
Enclosed organelles in general are absent in prokaryotic cells
Most prokaryotes are unicellular, while eukaryotes are commonly multicellular
Processes of division differ between the cells
Full transcript