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The Marshall Court

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Shyann Ringgold

on 21 May 2014

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Transcript of The Marshall Court

The Marshall Court
The Warren Court

The Marshall Court
"My gift of John Marshall to the people of the United States was the proudest act of my life." -John Adams (President)
Background Information: John Marshall
Former Chief Justice John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 in Germantown, Virginia. Following his service in
the Revolutionary War, John Marshall attended law courses and lectures held by George Wythe at the College of William and Mary. In 1780, Marshall was able to practice law. Beginning in 1782, Marshall was elected into the Virginia House of Delegates and in 1797, Mr. Marshall accepted the offer to go on a diplomatic mission to France. Marshall was offered appointment to the United States Supreme Court in 1798, but did not take the job, simply stating he liked practicing law privately. In 1799, Marshall was elected into the United States House of Representatives, and in 1800 he was named Secretary of State by President John Adams. The following year, President Adams nominated Marshall Chief Justice of the United States, and the Senate confirmed the appointment on January 27, 1801. Marshall still kept his position of Secretary of State while also holding the job of Chief Justice. Chief Justice John Marshall served as Chief Justice for 34 years, the longest tenure of any Chief Justice. During his tenure, he helped establish the Supreme Court as the final authority on the meaning of the Constitution. Marshall died on July 6, 1835, at the age of seventy-nine.
The Marshall Court
The Marshall Court made several important decisions that related to FEDERALISM. This Court affected the balance of power between the federal and state government and confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law. Marshall supported enumerated powers.
The Marshall Court
Major Goals of the Marshall Court:
Increase the powers of the national government
Diminish the powers of the state
Perpetuate the Federalist principle of centralization
Marshall Court Cases: Continued
Cases that Expanded the Powers of Congress:
Marshall Court Cases
Case That Expanded the Authority of the Supreme Court:

AP United States Government & Politics
FINAL PROJECT

Who is John Marshall?
The Marshall Court was the name for the Supreme
Court of the United States that lasted from 1801-1835., when
John Marshall
was Chief Justice.
John Marshall was a Federalist
Under Marshall, the Supreme Court adopted the practice of handing down a single opinion of the Court, allowing it to present a clear rule. Marshall's opinions helped determine future American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court equal to the legislative and executive branches.
Marshall also reinforced the principle that federal courts were obligated to exercise JUDICIAL REVIEW and overturned laws that violated the US Constitution.
Marbury v. Madison (1803):
This case established a very important topic: JUDICIAL REVIEW. The US Constitution only established that there would be a Judicial Branch for the federal government. After John Adams tried to appoint "Midnight Judges" before James Madison gained Presidency and prompted the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison, the courts established Judicial Review.
McCullough v Maryland (1819):
McCullough v. Maryland upheld the right of Congress to charter a national bank and established IMPLIED POWERS.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824):
Gibbons v. Ogden gave the national government undisputed control over interstate commerce by ruling invalid a steamboat monopoly chartered by New York state. This freed internal transportation from state restraint.
Last-Minute Info: THE MARSHALL COURT
John Marshall's Court established the primacy of Federal
Government over states in exercising control of the economy. The
Court also opened a way for increased federal role in promoting economic growth and affirmed protection for corporations and other private economic institutions. This allowed for a new capitalist economy.
THE WARREN COURT
The Warren Court: 1953-1969

The "Warren Court" was a court established by Chief
Justice Earl Warren in 1953.
Who was Earl Warren?
Earl Warren
Former Chief Justice Earl Warren was born in Los Angeles, California, on March 19, 1891. He was the son of a railroad employee. Mr. Warren was always determined to do better for himself, and strived to become a lawyer. Mr. Warren attended the University of California - Berkley, and majored in Political Science. He then entered their school of law. On May 14, 1915, he was admitted to the California state bar. In 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Warren as the 14th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Warren also headed the commission that investigated the assassination of JFK!
The Warren Court
The Warren Court was the Supreme Court between 1953-1969, and Earl Warren was Chief Justice. The Warren Court expanded Civil Rights, Civil Liberties, Judicial Power, and Federal Power.
The Warren Court: Continued
The Warren Court did something dramatic: it brought an end to racial segregation in the US, incorporating the Bill of Rights and officially sanctioned voluntary prayer in school.
Warren Court Cases:
Cases Regarding Racial Segregation:
Brown v. Board of Education (1954):
The Supreme Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white children unconstitutional. This overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, which established "separate but equal."
Warren Court Cases
Cases Regarding Voting, Redistricting, and Malapportionment:
Baker v. Carr (1962):
Retreated the courts political question doctrine and decided that redistricting issues present justifiable questions, and made the courts to decide redistricting cases.
Warren Court Cases

Court Cases Regarding Criminal Procedure:
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
A defendant must be read their Miranda Rights (Rights of the Accused)
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963):
Everyone must be provided with a lawyer

The Warren Court also established cases that had to do with Free Speech (New York Times Co vs. Sullivan), the Establishment Clause (Engel v. Vitale), and Right to Privacy (Griswold v. Connecticut).
Both the Marshall Court and the Warren Court established great things for the United States Supreme Court: the Marshall Court establishing judicial review, and the Warren Court expanding the powers of the federal government. Both court systems are crucial to United States history - especially to the judicial system of the United States.
Works Cited
"Biography of Earl Warren." Earl Warren (1891-1974). Regents of the University of California, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
Feldmeth, Greg D. "The Legacy of the Marshall Court (1801-1835)." U.S. History Resources. N.p., 31 Mar. 1998. Web. 19 May 2014.
JM Foundation. The Constitution of the United states. Photograph. n.d. The Rotunda of the National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.. Strengthen the Fabric of America. Web. 19 May 2014.
Mr. Spencer's Social Studies courses at Olympia. "John Marshall." Photograph. The Marshall Court. Mr. Spencer's Social Studies Class, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
Mrs. DePietro, and Dr. Weeks. Segregation in America from the 1870's through the 1950's. Lincoln Middle School Classroom Sites, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
"The Supreme Court Historical Society - The History of the Court - The Marshall Court, 1801-1835." The Supreme Court Historical Society - Home. The Supreme Court Historical Society, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
"The Supreme Court Historical Society - The History of the Court - The Warren Court, 1953-1969." The Supreme Court Historical Society - Home. The Supreme Court Historical Society, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
"The Supreme Court Historical Society - Timeline of the Court - Chief Justice John Marshall." The Supreme Court Historical Society - Home. The Supreme Court Historical Society, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
UC San Diego. "Chief Justice Earl Warren." Photograph. Earl Warren (1891-1974). Regents of the University of California, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
AP Government and Politics Final Project: WORKS CITED
Shyann Ringgold
NCVPS: Mr. Jiles

Works Cited:
Works Cited
"Biography of Earl Warren." Earl Warren (1891-1974). Regents of the University of California, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
Feldmeth, Greg D. "The Legacy of the Marshall Court (1801-1835)." U.S. History Resources. N.p., 31 Mar. 1998. Web. 19 May 2014.
JM Foundation. The Constitution of the United states. Photograph. n.d. The Rotunda of the National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.. Strengthen the Fabric of America. Web. 19 May 2014.
Mr. Spencer's Social Studies courses at Olympia. "John Marshall." Photograph. The Marshall Court. Mr. Spencer's Social Studies Class, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
Mrs. DePietro, and Dr. Weeks. Segregation in America from the 1870's through the 1950's. Lincoln Middle School Classroom Sites, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
"The Supreme Court Historical Society - The History of the Court - The Marshall Court, 1801-1835." The Supreme Court Historical Society - Home. The Supreme Court Historical Society, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
"The Supreme Court Historical Society - The History of the Court - The Warren Court, 1953-1969." The Supreme Court Historical Society - Home. The Supreme Court Historical Society, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
"The Supreme Court Historical Society - Timeline of the Court - Chief Justice John Marshall." The Supreme Court Historical Society - Home. The Supreme Court Historical Society, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
UC San Diego. "Chief Justice Earl Warren." Photograph. Earl Warren (1891-1974). Regents of the University of California, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
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