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Fascism, Communism, and Totalitarianism
Transcript of Fascism, Communism, and Totalitarianism
Fascism and Communism-
The Soviet Union
Methods of Control
Lenin and Stalin
Dealing with Dissenters
system supported by the middle class, industrialists, and the military
Economic functions were controlled by state corporations or the state itself
one party rules the government
one supreme leader
the state was considered more important than the individual
SS or secret police
and the Gestapo
If someone said something against the Nazi party, the Gestapo would go to their house in the middle of the night and take them to a concentration camp.
The threat of being sent to a concentration camp kept the general population in line
Nuremberg Laws: passed to limit the rights of Jews
People were expected to report things their neighbors said that were unacceptable
Censorship: the government controlled what was in the media (in schools, in advertising, in movies, music, and literature, and on the radio)
Ministers of propaganda:
Joesph Goebbels; made sure the German people only knew what the Nazis wanted them to know
Writers' works were banned if they sparked ideas of rebellion
1933: Hitler passed laws to deny personal weapons to people that the government deemed unreliable, especially Social Democrats
Mass searches and seizure of weapons followed
Laws were also passed to deny normal citizens rights to Jews
Jews, Slavs, and other undesirables were placed in concentration camps
Jews were banned from working in the manufacturing of weapons and banned from owning firearms
Nazis burned books that they deemed not acceptable for the public to read
rule by a single political party- Communist Party
no free elections- people do not have a voice
system supported by the Proletariat, working class of the 19th century, and Marxist revolutionaries
people of all social classes treated equally
suppressed political dissidence by shutting down hostile sources of news and subjecting all publications to preventative censoring
permitted artists and writers to creative freedom as long as they did not engage in open political dissent
eliminate religion- regarded as a "gross superstition"
wealth is divided up and shared by the government
no private property
means of production owned by the people
goods and services shared equally
progress results when a community of producers cooperate for the good of all
community/state should protect workers
Why communism was supported
The proletariat-working class of the 19th century,
lived in harsh poverty
worked in grueling conditions
were paid miserably low wages
In Russia during World War I, the proletariat of Russia saw hope in the Marxist revolutionaries, Bolsheviks, who would lead them to a "dictatorship of the proletariat" after overthrowing the czar. Communism looked like it provided the escape they so desperately sought. They may not have been interested in Communism, but they were interested in a better life.
Nazis stopped the premiere of "All Quiet In The Western Front"
Mussolini Named Il Duce
Disappointed over their failure to gain large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, Italy, which was also faced with rising inflation and unemployment due to the Great Depression, sought a leader who would take action to replace their seemingly incompetent democratic government.
Promising to give Italy the strong government its people desired by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces, newspaper editor, politician, and founder of the Fascist Party, Benito Mussolini rapidly gained popularity as economic conditions worsened, even among the middle classes, aristocracy, and industrial leaders by leading them to fear a worker's revolt.
Mussolini took power "legally", named Il Duce, or the leader, after 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome in October 1922, declaring that King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of the government or else face widespread violence and uprisings.
Methods of Control
Indoctrination: taught children to love the emperor from a young age
Japan had a large and intimidating military that became one of the military superpowers in the world during WW2. This military conquered other territories and launch attacks, but also frightened the citizens. Besides that, the military tortured Allied prisoners in particularly cruel ways.
Constant propaganda through radio, magazine, film, newspapers, and literature to ensure that people continued to support the Emperor. Its biased information told Japanese citizens that their army was always winning.
Support of Fascism In Germany
Film Law of 1939: frivolous media was outlawed by the government. Films were now supposed to present topics relative to the war to keep citizens in support of their army.
Supporters of Fascism:
The Japanese government also used their propaganda to appeal to African Americans (living in America), in attempts to show them all the horrible things America had done to them and turn them against their own country.
Germany had strong nationalist feelings, and the people were bonded under a ruler by a hatred of communism.
Most of Japanese propaganda tried to degrade Western culture.
Propaganda displayed the Allies as a weak enemy because of their government structures and anti-communism.
Italian Fascism under Mussolini
Fascism In Japan
all political parties outlawed save Fascists
secret police jailed opposition
radio stations and publications forced to broadcast or publish only Fascist doctrines by government censors
Methods of Control
A group known as the Blackshirts dealt with troublemakers and those who opposed the government through torture, violence, and humiliation. Compared to the Nazi SS and Gestapo, the Blackshirts did not murder many for speaking out about the government.
Mussolini hoped to deal with government opposition peacefully, but when that did not happen, he resorted to force to keep people in line.
Hitler's Rise to Power
Indoctrination in schools taught children to love Mussolini and his empire.
Japan was not fully fascist but it contained some of elements in its government. Japan started out democratic, but that proved to be weak, especially during the Great Depression. Military leaders were able to gain support and take over the government. The government was not recreated however, just restored to the traditional control of the government by the military, which is what the people wanted.
Boys were expected to grow into soldiers, and girls were expected to be good mothers and housekeepers.
Even at young ages, boys trained with fake weapons to prepare for war.
The Support Of Fascism In Italy
A strong organizer and speaker, Adolf Hitler was chosen as der Führer, or leader, of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi for short), who believed that Germany must overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. His failed attempt to seize power in Munich in 1923, inspired by Mussolini's march on Rome, led to his arrest, during which he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which set forth his beliefs and vision for Germany, including his belief of German, or Aryan superiority, and his desire to conquer eastern Europe and Russia. Although most Germans ignored him, the Great Depression and the economic collapse it brought to Germany led frightened, confused Germans to turn to Hitler, hoping for a strong leader who could protect them.
Conservative leaders, believing they could control Hitler and use him to their advantage, advised President Paul von Hindenburg to name Hitler chancellor in January 1932, allowing Hitler to legally rise to power.
Propaganda slogans said that Mussolini was always right, compared to the members of his government when dispute arose.
Strongly supported by the military, because the people believed that a nation must prove its superiority in order to survive, therefore a bigger and stronger army was needed.
Newspapers were told exactly what to report to support the Italian war effort and Mussolini.
Nationalist feelings were strong in Italy, and people bonded with a hatred of communism. Fascism provided the hope of a great economy and financial stability.One leader would end the conflicts between political parties, eliminating government standstills.
Nazism- the German brand of fascism
Fighting was praised in media, as it encouraged young people to join the war effort.
Italy had been facing turmoil within the country and wanted order from strikes and riots.
The people of Italy were told that individuals must submit to the fascist state in order to be truly free
Support Of Communism
Those in poverty had a chance at a better life,and the promise of being taken care of, there was no worry of starvation or going without.
Communism made everyone equal, nobody would or could be better or richer than another.
For some, communism promised rewards for no work.
Those in the middle class and especially the lower middle class, supported the idea of communism
Industrialist supported fascism as companies were allowed to keep their profits.
Support from the middle class was strong due to less inflation and lower rates of unemployment in fascist governments.
After the bad results of WW1, people desperately wanted strong leadership. One supreme leader gave the hope of a strong military and nation.
Japan wanted to become stable and improve its economy by foreign expansion-which is why the miliatry was supported.
Japan's economy was in bad condition after WW2 and people were starving- they needed strong leadership.
The Japanese wanted the military to take over the government so Japan could become a strong country again.
Nazis stirred up fear of Communists
Totalitarianism under Hitler
all political parties except Nazis were banned
SS (Schutzstaffel, elite protection squad) loyal only to Hitler- arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler's enemies in 1934
Gestapo, Nazi secret police, imposed terror upon Germans
The SS and Gestapo shocked most Germans into total obedience
Nazis in command of economy
independent labor unions dissolved
government given authority over business and labor
Millions of Germans were put to work constructing factories, building highways, manufacturing weapons, and serving in the military, resulting in a drop in unemployment from about 6 million to 1.5 million.
Control over every aspect of German life
press, radio, literature, painting, and film turned into propaganda tools to shape public opinion and win praise for his leadership
book burnings- those that did not conform to Nazi beliefs
churches forbidden to criticize Nazis or government
schoolchildren required to join the Hitler Youth or the League of German Girls
Rise of Fascist Ideas
Methods fueled by Hitler's belief that continuous struggle brought victory to the strong.
Nazi ideology- anti-Semitism, hatred of Jews, was a key part of Nazi ideology
passed Nuremberg laws depriving Jews of most of their rights
Kristallnacht, Night of Broken Glass- Nazi mobs attacked Jews and destroyed thousands of Jewish-owned buildings
Vladimir Lenin, leader of the radical Russian Marxist revolutionaries known as the Bolsheviks, led them to establish and maintain control of Russia through the revolutions and civil war.
Methods of Control
Indoctrination in schools from a young age
Police terror controlled citizens by spying on them and intimidating. They used brutal force and would sometimes resort to murder.
Media was censored in its entirety. Propaganda was used to ensure citizens knew only what the government wanted them to know.
Broadcasts glorifies Stalin and his economic plans.
Since the Soviet Union was communist, they sought to do away with religion and make the majority of their population Atheist. Police burned and destroyed churches and synagogues, especially targeting the Russian Orthodox church. Religion was seen as superstition by the Communist party. They worked to replace notions of religion with ideals of Communism.
Lenin's attempt at Communism
New Economic Policy (NEP)- allowed peasants to sell surplus crop, gave people incentive to work
encouraged foreign investment
government kept control of major industries, banks, and means of communication, but allowed some small factories, businesses, and farms operate under private ownership
Lenin established a dictatorship of the communist party, not a dictatorship of the proletariat, as Karl Marx promoted.
Russia organized into several self-governing republics under the central government
Russia renamed as Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Lenin's successor, Joseph Stalin, climbed to control of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks' new name), eliminating himself of opposition and moving supporters into positions of power.
Eliminated personal rights and freedoms for the benefit of the state
Stalin turns USSR into a totalitarian regime
sets goals of the state
glorifies aims of the state
justifies government actions
Dealing with Dissenters
encourages popular support through force of will
2 Many Japanese wanted the military to take over the government to make Japan a strong country again. With the support of the people, the military established almost complete control over the government, and local government offices. While Japan was led by an Emperor, most of the real power in Japan was in the hands of a group of military leaders.
Japan began to be more democratic in the 1920s, but when the Great Depression hit, Japan’s weaker democracy began to crumble. Japan’s economy was in bad condition and the people were starving. Japan’s parliamentary system also had several weaknesses.
The German Resistance was a group of people who opposed the Nazi Regime and Hitler that existed between 1933-1945. Although they existed often in small, isolated groups, members who worked inside the government managed to convince members of Wehrmacht to help stage a military coup against Hitler. However the coup did not really develop, as it was supposed to be triggered by an assassination of Hitler in 1944. This attempt failed, and ideas of the coup fell apart
exercises absolute authority
dominates the government
Unlike the Fascists in Europe, the militarists did not try to establish a completely new system of government. However, it became more fascist. Indoctrination and censorship in education and the media were intensified. Hideki Tojo was a army general who continuously rose up in the army ranks, and eventually the emperor himself appointed Tojo to be Prime Minister. He pushed Japan to join the Axis Powers of Germany and Italy, and helped plan war against the United States.
Some people inside the German government were accused of being dissenters and were executed, even though many were completely innocent of their accusation.
mass communication to spread propaganda
advanced military weapons
denies basic liberties
expects personal sacrifice for the good of the state
Beliefs and ideals of Protestant and Catholic churches constantly differed with those of the Nazi regime but the churches were mostly left alone.
After the Nazis took over Poland, the Poland Underground State developed to rid Poland of German control. All types of people from many different religions and statuses in Poland supported this State, and managed to raise a military unit against the Nazis.
The Poland Underground State also wanted to free Polish prisoners the Nazis had taken.
The Poland Underground State also wanted to start a general uprising as the Allies approached Poland, hoping the Allies would come to their aid, which did not happen. They did manage to regain control of several Polish towns, but were not able to regain their capital city, Warsaw.
In 1931, the Japanese army seized Manchuria, and this was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations. League members were upset and protested, but Japan ignored the protests and withdrew from the League. 4 years later, a border incident turned into a war between Japan and China. Japanese forces began invading northern China. Despite having a large army, China was no match for the better equipped and trained Japanese. Beijing and other northern cities as well as the capital city Nanjing, all fell to the Japanese.
Fascism appealed to people because the leader promised an organized and efficient government, and some countries who were weak and chaotic wanted this sort of stability.
Dealing with Dissent
The need for raw materials caused a push for a strong leader to take control and fight other countries.
Though not widely popular before the revolutions, Russian industrial class workers supported the Bolshevik's cause, as it would transfer the czar's power to the proletariat
Dissenters in Italy
Fasci di Combattimenti- Blackshirts- brought those who opposed Mussolini into line, murdering Socialists such as Matteotti, who was an outspoken critic of Mussolini and his views.
maintained an iron rule in Italy, though murderous tactics seen in other countries were rarely used
tied troublemakers to trees, forced them to consume oil and then proceed to eat a live animal, ensuring people kept their thoughts to themselves
Secret police in Italy- OVRA, formed in 1927 and led by Arturo Bocchini
Death penalty restored for forms of capital offense.
Prisons set up on Mediterranean islands such as Ponza and Lipari
To prevent future dissenters to Mussolini's rule, children were taught at school that Mussolini was the only one who could lead Italy back to greatness, to call him Il Duce, and were also encouraged to attend youth groups, such as:
Sons of the She Wolf- 4 to 8; Black shirt
Balilla- 8 to 14; Black shirt, black cap, shorts, grey socks
Avanguardista- 14 to 18; Same as Balilla except knickerbockers instead of shorts.
Once the OVRA had dealt with those adults who challenged the authority of the state, all future adults of Fascist Italy would be model civilians and not a challenge to those in charge.
"War is to the male what childbearing is to the female."- in the sense that both are natural
desensitizing the youth to violence, overall dehumanizing them
Supported by industrialists
In Japan, dissenters were not as much of a problem as in other countries. When children said something against the emperor, they were ridiculed and bullied. When adults criticized their government, they were frowned upon by their neighbors. Peer pressure kept people in line. Strict propaganda prevented any signficant resistance groups from surfacing and becoming a major threat.
People feared communism, and since Fascism was its opposite, they supported it.
Secret police used tanks and armored cars to stop riots
telephone lines monitored
informers planted everywhere- nowhere could your opinion, if differing from the USSR's, be safely conveyed, even your own child could tell authorities of disloyal remarks heard at home
Millions of "traitors" arrested and executed by the Cheka, an apparatus of the Soviet government that aimed to control its people, such as later organizations, the OGPU and the KGB.
Communist Party members targeted by Stalin, 1934- threat to ability to maintain power
1937- Great Purge- campaign of terror aiming to eliminate anyone who threatened Stalin's power
1917- many Bolsheviks that helped during the Revolution faced trial, and were proceedingly executed or sent to labor camps on the charge of "crimes against the Soviet State".
By 1938, when the Great Purge ended, Stalin had gained total control of the Soviet Government and the Communist Party, but was responsible for about 8 to 13 million deaths.
All sources of information (e.g. newspapers, motion pictures, radio,etc.) were censored by the Glavlit, who had final authority over printed materials as well as the performing arts, as Stalin had no tolerance for individual creativity that did not conform to the views of the state.
Government controlled education and youth groups, working in conjunction with each other, taught kids to learn the virtues of the Communist Party, whilst discouraging them from forming their own views. This created ideal future party members.
Those who questioned the the Communist Party's interpretations of histroy or science, such as college professors and students, were likely to lose their job and may also have been imprisoned for their nonconformity.
Octobrists- 8 to 10
Pioneers- 10 to 16
Komsomol- 19 to 23
Resisting collectivization, Ukrainian Kulaks murdered officials, torched collectives' property, and destroyed their own crops in protest. The state was then ordered by Stalin to take control of their land and equipment, and confiscate their food and grain stores. In the process, more than 9 million Ukrainians were imprisoned, exiled, killed, or died in the resulting famine, completely eliminating the Kulaks by 1935.