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South America

Geography of Central and South America
by

Ashley Dutton

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of South America

Latin America Mexico South America Central America Colonized by the Spanish and Portuguese
which are languages that came from Latin South America CLIMATE:
Deserts can be hot or cold but are always dry
Tropical Rainforests are hot and wet (rainy)
Grasslands are warm and rainy
Mountain climates change with elevation- higher up=colder Landforms:
Andes Mountains are longest Mountain range
The rainforest covers 40% of Brazil
The Pampas and llanos are grasslands
the Amazon River is the largest river system
there are few natural lakes
Angel Falls is the worlds largest waterfall- over a mile high Central America is an isthmus
Isthmus is a small strip of land connecting two larger areas
Highlands- hilly sections
Also sits on tectonic plates Mexico has plateaus,mountains and plains
Sierra Madre Occidental along the West
Sierra Madre Oriental in the east
tectonic plates cause earthquakes and volcanoes
Most of the people in Mexico live in the central plateau Geography of Latin America temperatures around tropic of cancer are warm all the time
perfect for rainforests
North of the tropic of cancer has more variation in temperature
dry areas with desert shrubs
Mountain temperatures varry with elevation
plants varry with elevation too! Completely in tropical zone- warm all year
Lots of rain along Carribean Coast becasue of the wind
perfect for rainforests
Wind is blocked from the interior and west by mountains
Mountain climates and vegitation varry with temperature Caribbean Islands Bahamas are archipelago- chain of islands
most islands are tops of underwater volcanoes
Greater Antilles- large islands
Lesser Antilles- small islands Warm ocean heats up the wind- wind keeps islands warm
Islands that face the wind get more rain
Islands that are protected from wind get less rain

Islands have rainforest, deciduous forests, desert shrubs Panama Canal Was built on the Ithmus because it was the narrowest point to dig across

Started by France but taken over by the United States due to the difficulty in digging, money problems, and many tropical diseases

Allows ships to pass between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Rainforest important in the Carbon Oxygen Cycle- allows us to get fresh Oxygen

Rainforest is called Lungs of the Earth and helps protect against Global warming

Also could provide important medicine- new species are still being discovered 1/2 the world's animals (lots of Biodiversity)

Is being cut down for ranching land, farmland, paper products and rubber Mexico Urbanization- people move from rural areas to cities- happened in Mexico because of RURAL DECLINE (when poverty and lack of jobs hits farming towns) Spatial Inequality- when money, space, and resources are distributed unevenly depending on Social Class or wealth level.

Spatial Inequality is prevalent in Mexico City. When trees are cut down we call it deforestation! 1.altitudinal zonation: the division of land into zones based on elevation, which in turn helps determine climate and vegetation
2.archipelago: A group or chain of many islands.
3.biodiversity: the variety of plants and animals living in one area
4.Carbon Oxygen Cycle: people breath in Oxygen and breath out Carbon Dioxide while trees "breath" in carbon dioxide and "breath" out oxygen. Both trees and people need each other
5.deforestation: The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
6.highlands: areas of high elevation containing mountains and plateaus
7.indigenous: Native; occuring naturally in a region or country
8.isthmus: a relatively narrow strip of land (with water on both sides) connecting two larger land areas
9.rural decline: worsening economic conditions in the countryside icluding rising unemployment and growing poverty
10.spatial inequality: the unequal distribution of wealth or resources in a geograhic area, so that some places are richer than others
11.standard of living: a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone
12.substainable development: it is a way of using natural resources without depleting them and of providing for human needs without causing long term environmental harm
13.terracing: carving small, flat plots of land from hillsides to use for farming
14.tropical rainforest: Forests where rainfall is abundant - more that 200 cm (80 in) per year - and temperatures are warm or hot year-round
15.urbanization: movement of people from rural areas to cities
16.vertical trade: the trading of crops between lowland and highland areas Vocab List
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