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Transcript of PS193
b) More than a program for agricultural reform
c) Not just a specific economic system by which the means of production are nationalized with the aim of a strictly centralized, planned economy.
d) Not just socialism or communism Marxism, therefore is . . .
in every sphere of life and which denies the validity of alternative answers in every sphere as well. IDEOLOGY, WORLD VIEW (WELTANSCHAUUNG) AND AN AGENDA WHICH PROVIDES THE INDIVIDUAL WITH ANSWERS An Jules Monnerot: Marxism as a “new Islam,” It is the Secularized Vision of the
Kingdom of God. Nothing less than a program for creating a new humanity and a new world in which humanity will totally rule over nature and at the same time be totally reconciled with it. Marxist schools in the West present MARXISM AS A COOL, EMOTIONLESS SOCIO-POLITICAL THEORY thus REDUCING KARL MARX’S TEACHING TO A SOCIALIST ECONOMIC POLICY. Marxism is nothing but a scientific analysis of the laws of the social development. Marxists, it seems, are divided along the same lines as theology: orthodox and liberal, dogmatists and reformers. we find very
among those who claim to be Marxists. DIFFERING CONCEPTS OF MARXISM Marxist schools in the West present MARXISM AS A COOL, EMOTIONLESS SOCIO-POLITICAL THEORY thus REDUCING KARL MARX’S TEACHING TO A SOCIALIST ECONOMIC POLICY. Marxism is nothing but a scientific analysis of the laws of the social development. Marxists, it seems, are divided along the same lines as theology: orthodox and liberal, dogmatists and reformers. we find very
among those who claim to be Marxists. DIFFERING CONCEPTS OF MARXISM Marx on Religion “The more man puts into God, the less he retains in himself.” The Elimination of Religion was necessary for the development of true humanity. In 1843, Marx said: Is God sovereign, One of the two is an untruth, even if an existing untruth. People must be free. They must not have a Lord above them. or is man? A MARXIST = ABROGATION OF ITS ATHEISM WOULD NECESSARILY IMPLY THE ABOLITION OF ITS HISTORICAL MATERIALISM AND ITS ANTHROPOLOGY, ESCHATOLOGY AND ITS ETHICS. “Ideological coexistence is as impossible as fried snowballs.” Ludwig Feuerbach Died in 1872, tried to explain religion, esp. Christian religion, by way of psychology. Spent his whole life working on the critique of the Christian religion. Intellectual father not only of Marx’s critique of religion but also on Sigmund Freud’s. His thought represents one of the most influential philosophical systems of the 19th and 20th century. In order to avoid despair, people created the myth of a benevolent power behind the universe: God God is seen to be “nothing other than” the image of man and his attributes, enlarged and projected onto heaven. Born in 1804, 14 years older than Marx God is the expression of the essence of humanity, stripped of all earthly limitations. Feuerbach’s basic thesis: RELIGION is the SELF-ALIENATION OF HUMANITY.
a)The enlargement of human attributes. His explanation on the GENESIS ON THE CONCEPT OF GOD along the lines of the two paths of medieval speculation about God: b)The other, negation of them. Sorry na bai. Wa jud na tuyo.a, Person 1: Sayop-sayop man ni imong gipangsuwat oy. Person 2: TAO RAJUD KO. Person 1: Person 2: DI MAN KA GINOO
He applies this method to all the various divisions of Christian doctrine one by one. In his work The Essence of Christianity (1841): REDUCE DIVINE ATTRIBUTES TO HUMAN ATTITUDES. He tried to consistently THEOLOGY NEEDS TO BE REDUCED TO ANTHROPOLOGY This critique of religion, as it is applied to religious pronouncements, consists of the reversal of the biblical idea God as The CRUTCH + - GOAL -ATE (help) (dependency) ONE REAL REVOLUTION AND RENOVATION Marx says that man created in religion a fantasy picture of the way life should be because he found the actual conditions of life so unjust. But Marx went further as to radicalize Feuerbach a) Narcotic b) Opium (Dependency) (Destructive) Greediness of Society Alienates the goodness in humanity through the religious discourses MARX:
Religion as Narcotic Thus, religion became a supporter of an extractive society. •Focuses on the ruling class which employs religion as a means to divert the attention of the masses from their miserable condition. Relevant Religion according to Luther Religion as Opium or Narcotic JUSTICE JUST- TIIS vs. 1) Marcos' Low Intensity Conflict 2) Imelda's Moral Recovery The destruction of religion is necessary, so that man will discard his illusions and regain his senses. Going Beyond Feuerbach . Marx demands practice. Marx postulates a concrete sociological approach to religion. Marx asserts that reality is always tied to time. “Philosophers have only interpreted the world in different ways; the point is to change it.” “What is man? Is he merely a theoretical concept, a thought, as God was before?” •“But man is no abstract being squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, state, society.” Criticizing Individualism in Religion “Rejoice that your names are written in heaven.” (Lk. 10:20) Certainly, people are not being swept as a group into the kingdom of God. Feuerbach always maintained that because Christianity stresses transcendence and the love of God, it could never successfully defend the command to love one’s neighbor. b) Does a human person become worthy when tied up with God? Or is he a worth in himself? Therefore question is: a) Do we love thy neighbor and attach the concept of God with it? Or do we love thy neighbor as himself? 1.Christianity can’t help but be oppressive. Limits to Marxist Critique 2.Christianity, in order to establish a discourse that defends status quo and allows this discourse to support their class consciousness and oppression, specifically 3.Granting that Engels, also Marx, is correct in observing 1 and 2; yet, it can’t be denied that Christianity is a historical religion that has changed the life and contour of Europe. choose what scriptures and what books among the apostles are to be included as final Scripture. He called upon Muslims to recognize the rich legacy of Islam and to detach themselves from any external influences, especially those of capitalism and Marxism.
He urged Muslims to wake up from their slumber and realize that by attempting to spread their ideology in the Muslim world, the imperialists were attempting to kill Islamic ideology. Muslims must stand together in opposition to such interference in their social, economic and political systems. Came from an old and well-known religious family Muhammad Baqir As-Sadr A scholar, a religious leader, a teacher, and a pol. figure. Born in Kazimain, Baghdad, in Iraq (1350 A.H = A.D. 1931)
At the age of 4, Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr lost his father, and was brought up by his religious mother and elder brother, Isma’il.
It is said that Muhummad showed signs of genius early in life. a mujtahid is a higly learned person, one who has attained the highest level among Muslim theologians. When he was 10, he was delivering lectures on Islamic history, as well as on some other aspects of Islamic culture.
He was capable of comprehending difficult theological issues even without any assistance from a teacher.
At 11, he took up the study of logic, and wrote a book in which he criticized philosophers. At 25, he taught bahth kary.
Also taught figh (the Islamic law)
At 30, he was declared a mujtahid. In his works, he attacked materialistic dialectics, and advocated instead the Islamic concept of distinguishing truth from error. He wrote extensively on economics, and was often consulted by various Islamic organization, such as the Islamic bank for Development CAPITALISM Based on unlimited confidence in the individual Individual’s personal interests Interests of society in various areas The idea of such a state is that it seeks to protect the individuals and their personal interests. Political Freedom Economic Freedom Ideational Freedom Individual Freedom Marx goes beyond Feuerbach in that he postulates the historical critique of religion. He supported the theory of G.F Daumer who held that Christianity was merely the further development of the Phoenician cult of Moloch In Protestantism, one would now only find spiritualized forms of the ancient practice; therefore, there were many more imbeciles in Protestantism According to Marx, Daumer's critique had given Christianity the final push, and the edifice of fraud and prejudice and was now collapsing. Again, using G.F Daumer,Marx says that it would be best for a society to structure culture and civilization in terms of Humanism instead of Religion. It is clear that this social system is
that people adopted, separating themselves from their source and final end, and limiting themselves to the beneficial side of their material life. MATERIALISTIC TENDENCY IN CAPITALISM a purely materialistic system Not established on a materialistic philosophy of life and a detailed study of it. for the social consideration of life is linked to the reality of life This is a contradiction and a failure; THE CAPITALISTIC SYSTEM IS MATERIALISTIC Thus, in every sense of the term. It either internalizes materialism, while lacking the courage to declare its being linked to it and based on it; or it is ignorant of the extent of the natural link between the actual and social situations of life. Due to this, capitalistic democracy is devoid of the philosophy on which every social system must rest. Hence, IT IS NOT BASED ON A CLEARLY OUTLINED MATERIALISTIC PHILOSOPHY. 1) The Majority governed the minority, their vital interests and affairs. The Tragedies of Capitalism Morality was removed from the picture. The individual interest was declared as the highest objective, Resulted in most of the severe trials, catastrophes, tragedies and misfortunes Thus, the individual abolishes any ethical scheme or spiritual consideration for their sake. 2) It allowed various methods and kinds of acquiring wealth, regardless of how exorbitant the wealth is, and regardless of how deviant it is in its methods and reasons. 3) Those gentleman in whose hands the capitalistic democratic system places full power and to whom it supplies every force and capacity will extend their vision – inspired by the mentality of the system – to wider horizons. Also, inspired by their welfare and aims, they will feel in need of new areas of power. Communism and Socialism 1)Private ownership must be canceled and fully obliterated from society. 2)Goods produced must be distributed in accordance with the individual need for consumption. 3)This must be carried out on the basis of an economic plan put forth by the state.
They found their way full of the contradictory elements that human nature imposes in the face of the revolutionary method of social reform that they preached. They clashed with reality when they came to apply [their ideas.] Materialistic communism believes in proper linkage between the issue of actual life and the social issue, but capitalistic democracy does not believe in such a linkage, or does not attempt to make it clear. From the first glance one casts on the communistic system, it is easy to notice that, whether this system is diluted or complete,
for the purpose of realizing the general standards that this system presupposes. ITS GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC IS TO DESTROY THE INDIVIDUAL IN SOCIETY AND MAKE HIM AN INSTRUMENT TO BE MANIPULATED As a result of this,
to choice and thinking. INDIVIDUALS WERE EXPOSED TO SEVERE ORDEALS THAT ABOLISHED THEIR FREEDOM, THEIR PERSONAL EXISTENCE, AS WELL AS THEIR NATURAL RIGHTS The complications of this treatment are enormous indeed. Its concern is to terminate individual freedom, in order to establish communist ownership in place of private ownership. How could a human being aspire to freedom in any field when he is deprived of the freedom of his life? The most general and the oldest instinct we know; for all other instincts, including the instinct of life, are branches and subdivisions of this instinct. SELF-LOVE Which we express by our yearning for pleasure and hatred for pain. Whenever we wish to create any change in human behavior, we must first change the human notion of pleasure and benefit, and then place the behavior desired in the general frame of the instinct of self-love. We can explain human behavior in general, as being well-grounded in the areas of selfishness and self-love alike. b)To develop people’s materialistic notion of life. Two options for erecting a stable society: The cancellation of legislating private ownership and its removal from the legal records as along sufficient for developing human nature and solving the problem. – that is, to create in people a new nature that makes them sacrifice their personal interests and the material acquisitions of their limited lives for the sake of society and its interests. A) TO REPLACE THE PRESENT HUMAN NATURE BY ANOTHER NATURE Private Ownership Self-love Personal
Interests Individual Benefits
Private Ownership Thus, Social Feeling Thus, we know the value of the first option for solving the problem – that is, the communistic option which considers This is the option pursued by Islam, due to its conviction that the only solution for the problem is to modify the human materialistic notion of life. According to Islam, the basic central point due to which human life was crowded with various kinds of misery and diff. forms of tragedy is the materialistic view of life which we can summarize in the following brief statements:
1) The assumption of human life in this world is all that should count.
2) Further, personal interest should be set up as the standard of all action and activity.
Rather, it assaulted the materialistic notion of life and posited, instead, a new notion of life. On the basis of this new notion, Islam established a system in which:
1) The individual is not considered as a mechanical tool in the social system,
2) Nor society as an organization established for the sake of the individual. Thus, Islam did not begin with the cancellation of private ownership. Rather, it gave to each – the individual and society – their rights and insured for the individual both his spiritual and material dignity. This profound political awareness is the real message for peace in the world.
a new ideological principle of life and universe. Further, this message for salvation is the eternal message of Islam which drew its social system from •Thus, it made them believe that their lives proceed from a principle which is absolutely perfect, and that their lives prepare them for a world free from hardship and misery. •Besides, Islam set up a new moral criterion for human beings w/ which they may evaluate all the steps they take and all the stages they cross, this criterion being the satisfaction of God, be He exalted. Religion ties together the moral criterion which it lays down for people and self-love which is centered in their nature. THE MESSAGE OF RELIGION The reconciliations and unification occur through: 1) Focuses on a realistic explanation of life, and on spreading the understanding of life in its real form, as an introduction that prepares the way for the second life in which the human being achieves happiness proportional to his efforts in this limited life to attain God’s satisfaction.
2) To offer a specific moral education concerned with the spiritual nourishment of human beings and their emotional growth and moral sentiments. Thus, the basic distinguishing feature of the Islamic system is represented in its being based in a spiritual understanding of life and moral sense of life. spiritual comprehension of life and the moral education of the soul are Thus, the
in the teachings of Islam, the two causes that together treat the deeper cause of the human tragedy. This criterion is the satisfaction of God, be He exalted. A major point of this system is the taking into consideration of both the individual and society, and the securing of a balance between life of the individual and social life. Islam carried the torch that overflows with light after mankind reached a specific degree of awareness. Thus, it advocated spiritual and moral principles on the largest scale, and for the longest term. Because of this, the political awareness of Islam is not limited to the formal aspect of social life. Rather, it
This comprehensive outlook is the complete Islamic awareness.
that provides mankind with struggle and misery of all forms ad types. is a profound political awareness due to a general and complete outlook of life, the universe, society, politics, economics and ethics. Any other political awareness is either a shallow awareness that neither views the world from a specific perspective, nor sets its notions on a specific focal point, or an awareness that investigates the world from the point of view of pure matter PROJECTION THEORY OF RELIGION Akong langoyon ang dagat para niya, akong hatagan ang buwan sa iyang tiil.<3 Hunongi na nang kabuang nimo bai. para kabuhat ana.