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Macromolecules

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Shara D

on 16 July 2015

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Transcript of Macromolecules

What is a macromolecule?
Monomer vs. Polymer

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Structure
Made of carbon, hydrogen, and some oxygen (CHO)

Nonpolar (Does not dissolve in water)

Composed of fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol
Examples
(11)
Function
Long-term energy storage
ie. glycogen

Forms cell membrane
ie. phospholipids

Used to create hormones
ie. cholesterol

Function
Structural support (collagen)

Storage (ovalbumin)

Transport (hemglobin)

Defense (antibodies)

Enzymes (amylase)

Structure
Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
and nitrogen (CHON)

Also called polypeptides

Polymers of amino acid monomers

Amino acids differ in their side chain or R-group

Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds
to form proteins
There are four major categories of macromolecules
Lipids
Proteins
Macromolecules
Carbon can form
3 major types of structures:
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Structure
Examples
Function
"Large molecule"
Made from carbon (C) compounds
Monomers: small subunits or 'building blocks'
Polymers: large units composed of multiple monomers
mono- = one
poly- = many
-mer = subunit
long chain
Picture sources:
(1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeletal_formula#/media/File:Skeletal-formulae-example-1-hexane.png

(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triglyceride#/media/File:Fat_triglyceride_shorthand_formula.PNG

(3) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexose#/media/File:HexosesHemiacetal.svg

(4)

(5) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:D-glucose_color_coded.png

(6) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate#/media/File:Lactose.svg

(7) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amylose2.svg

(8) https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/Beta-lactam_antibiotics_example_1.svg/510px-Beta-lactam_antibiotics_example_1.svg.png

(9) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate#/media/File:Starchy-foods..jpg

(10) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sucrase.jpg

(11) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Common_lipids_lmaps.png

(12) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice_bran_oil#/media/File:Sesame-Oil-Rice-Bran-Oil-Hemp-Seed-Oil.jpg

(13) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_bilayer#/media/File:Lipid_bilayer_section.gif

(14) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_bilayer#/media/File:Lipid_unsaturation_effect.svg

(15) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Galemu2/Sandbox#/media/File:Overview_proteinogenic_amino_acids-DE.svg

Quiz time!
Which of the following
images is an example of a
long chain? Branched chain? Ring?
(1)
(2)
(3)
ring
branched chain
Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO)

There are 2 types: monosaccharides and polysaccharides

Monomers called monosaccharides or simple sugars

Polymers called polysaccharides
(5)
(7)
(3)
(6)
(7)
Answer the following:

1) Which of the following structures is not a carbohydrate? Explain.

2) Which structures are monosaccharides?

3) Which structures are polysaccharides?
(8)
Short- term or quick energy
ie. starch, glycogen

Structural support
ie. cellulose in plants
Names often end in -ose
ie. sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose, cellulose, amylose, etc.

Also starch and glycogen
(9)
Carbohydrates are found in potatoes, rice, sugar, bread, pasta, etc.
(10)
According to the picture, are the following monomers or polymers? Monosaccharides or polysaccharides? How do you know?

A. Sucrose
B. Glucose
C. Fructose
Examples
Structure
Function
Example
(2)
(11)
Found in cell membrane, wax, butter, oils, etc.

(12)
(13)
(14)
Notice the polar head and nonpolar tail, in the figure below. How can this be useful for the cell membrane?
20 common amino acids
(16)
(17)
The amount and order of amino acids determines the protein.

The interactions between the amino acids determine the protein's shape.
(18)
When the incorrect amino acid is used, the structure and function of the protein is compromised.
ie. Sickle cell occurs when a valine (Val) replaces a glutamic acid (Glu) in a hemoglobin protein.
(19)
Collagen
(20)
(21)
(16) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid#/media/File:Peptidformationball.svg

(17) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:224_Peptide_Bond-01.jpg

(18) https://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anemija_srpastih_eritrocita#/media/File:Hbs.svg

(19) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sickle_cell_01sp.jpg

(20) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_folding#/media/File:Protein_structure.png

(21) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1K6F_Crystal_Structure_Of_The_Collagen_Triple_Helix_Model_Pro-_Pro-Gly103_04.png

(22) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ovalbumin_1OVA.png

(23) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Protein_HBB_PDB_1a00.png

(24) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2220_Four_Chain_Structure_of_a_Generic_Antibody-IgG2_Structures.jpg

(25) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleotide#/media/File:0322_DNA_Nucleotides.jpg

(26) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid_structure#/media/File:A-B-Z-DNA_Side_View.png

(27) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rna-structure.jpg

(28) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amylase#/media/File:Salivary_alpha-amylase_1SMD.png

Picture sources:
Ovalbumin
(22)
Hemoglobin
(23)
Antibodies
(24)
Amylase
(28)
Which type of biological macromolecule is represented by Molecule D in the table above?

A. Carbohydrate
B. Nucleic Acid
C. Protein
D. Lipid
Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus (CHONP)

Polymer of nucleotides

Each nucleotide is composed of 3 parts:
5 carbon sugar
nitrogenous base
phosphate group
(25)
Store and transmit genetic information

Build proteins


(26)
DNA
(27)
RNA
Tips for identifying macromolecules
Carbohydrates
If it ends in -ose, it is likely a type of sugar. Sugars are carbohydrates.
Look at the structure of the letter 'S'. Notice the top half makes a 'C'. This reminds us that
c
arbohydrates give us
s
hort-term energy
s
torage and
s
tructural
s
upport.
Lipids
L
ipids provide
l
ong-term energy storage. See those L's?!
Proteins
If it ends in -in, it is likely a protein.
If it ends in -ase or -zyme, it is likely an enzyme. Remember, enzymes are proteins. However, all proteins are not enzymes.
Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA. That's it.
Carbohydrates and lipids are very similar in their chemical composition. Both contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO). Proteins take things a step further by adding nitrogen (CHON). Nucleic acids have the fewest examples (DNA & RNA), but contain the most elements (CHONP).
CLNP: CHO, CHO, CHON, CHONP
(15)
Have you ever seen someone put butter or oil in a pan before cooking or baking?

Why would he/she do that?

How does this practice relate to the structure and function of fats and oils?
Think about it...
1. Glucose is a:
A. monosaccharide
B. polypeptide
C. lipid
D. polysaccharide

2. Which of the following is not a protein?
A. an enzyme
B. cholesterol
C. an antibody
D. insulin

3. Glycogen is used to store energy in the liver and muscle tissue. Glycogen is an example of which type of macromolecule?
A. carbohydrate
B. lipid
C. protein
D. nucleic acid

4. A scientist analyzing an unknown substance has determined that it consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. During experimentation, she determines that the substance is soluble in oil but not in water. Which of the following macromolecules is the unknown substance most likely to be?
A. carbohydrate
B. lipid
C. nucleic acid
D. protein

A scientist analyzing an unknown substance has determined that it consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. During experimentation, she determines that the substance is soluble in oil but not in water. Which of the following macromolecules is the unknown substance most likely to be?
 
a. carbohydrate
b. lipid
c. nucleic acid
d. protein

In the formation of a protein, which type of bond would join 2 amino acid subunits?

A. ionic bond
B. peptide bond
C. hydrogen bond
D. phosphodiester bond
(3)
(2)
(1)
Full transcript