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Reference and Information Services: An INtroduction

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Lisa Danner

on 23 July 2015

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Transcript of Reference and Information Services: An INtroduction

Reference and Information Services:
An Introduction, 3rd Edition

Kay Ann Cassell & Uma Hiremath
Part II
Introduction to Major Reference Sources
Lisa J. Danner
LSSL 5334 04
Textbook Reading Parts II, III, & IV
Dr. Aguilar -Crandall

Bibliographical Resources
Ready Reference Sources
Dictionaries, Concordances, and Manuals
Databases & Indexes
They represent an organized way to present information about books, newspapers, periodicals, and media in print and digital formats.
Bibliographies record important information about a book such as author, title, publishing information, and edition.
They are used to identify or verify information, locate materials, and select materials for the collection.
Evaluate Resources by:
Bibliographical content
Age (Should be current)
Examples of Bibliographies
The National Union Catalog
Library Catalogs
Books in Print
The United States Catalog
Magazines for Libraries
Video Source Book
Fiction Connection
Non-Fiction Connection
Internet Movie Database
Film and Video Finder Online
Library of Congress Catalog
An encyclopedia is a book or set of books giving information on many subjects or on many aspects of one subject and typically arranged alphabetically. Traditionally they were available only in print, but now available digitally as well.
Things to consider:
Age appropriateness
Evaluate using
- Level of user
- Updating policies
- Research aids
- Electronic availability
- Special features
Two Types of Encyclopedias
General - covers all areas of information
Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia Americana
World Book Encyclopedia
Specific - In-depth coverage of one area
Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste
The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art
Dirr's Encyclopedia of Trees and Shrubs
Established reference works that cover major who, what, which, where, when and how questions covered by a librarian.
Sources to Use
Telephone books
Government directories
Consumer and citizen guides
College guides
Grant books
Occupation handbooks
Library synopsis
Relocation directories
Timelines and events
World Almanac and Book of Facts
Time Almanac
Local Facts
Visitor information
Town map
Consumer Reports
NADA Appraisal Guides
Occupation Handboooks
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Literary Synopsis
Magill's Survey of American Literature
Statesman's Yearbook
Timelines and Events
Chases Calendar of Events
American Decades
Emily Post's Etiquette
Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised
- definitions, etymology and usage of words, pronunciation, root history
- provides synonyms and antonyms to aide in finding the "right" word
Quotation Books
- provide memorable quotations
- alphabetical enumeration of major words in a book or series of books
- grammar and puctuation, style and citation guidance

Evaluation of word Sources
Oxford English Dictionary
OED Online

The American Heritage Dictionary
Chambers Dictionary
Canadian Oxford Dictionary
Macmillan English Dictionary
Ultimate Visual Dictionary
Green's Dictionary of Slang
Acronym Finder
Words to Rhyme With
A Student's Dictionary
World Book Dictionary
LEO Dictionary
Harvard Dictionary of Music
Oxford Large Print Dictionary
Bartlett's Familiar Quotations
Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible
Chicago Manual of Style
Most used library reference
Provide access to current and historic periodical articles, newspapers, book information, dissertations, interviews, conference proceedings and more
Easy searchability by subject, keyword and author
Authority of publisher
Scope/subjects covered
Number and quality of periodicals/newspapers/resources indexed
Number of titles with full text coverage
Currency and frequency of updating
Accuracy of citations
Subject headings/controlled vocabulary and access points
Statistics and training for staff
Evaluating Databases
Types of Databases
Multidisciplinary Periodical Databases (EBSCO, ProQuest)
Newspaper Databases and Indexes (Newspaper Source Plus, ProQuest Newsstand)
Subject-Based Indexes
Science and Technology Databases (General Science Index)
Education Databases (Education Full Text)
Social Science Databases (Social Sciences Full Text)
Humanities Databases (Humanities Full Text)
Language and Literature Databases (MLA International Bibliography
Open Access Journals (HighWire Press)
Citation Indexes (Web of Science)
Databases for Special Types of Material (Essay and General Literature Index)
Databases for Children and Young Adults (Primary Search)

Geography, Countries
and Travel
Health, Law, & Business
Biographical Information Sources
Government Information Sources
Medical, legal and business questions
ALA has set-up specific guidelines for this category because they are so complex.
Librarians should handle with care as they are not specialists.
Major Business Resources
Business Dictionaries (Concise Dictionary of Business)
Directories and Handbooks (LexisNexis Corporate Affiliations)
Investment Guides (Value Line Investment Survey)
Business Entrepreneurship Aids (Market Share Reporter)
Business Databases and Indexes (Gale's Business and Company)
Major Health Resources
Medical Dictionaries (Stedman's Medical Dictionary)
Medical Encyclopedias
General (Encyclopedia of Life Sciences)
Specialized (Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health, Physician's Desk Reference)
Handbooks and Manuals (Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy)
Medical Directories (Doctor Finder)
Medical Databases and Indexes (PubMed)
Health Information Sites (Medline Plus)
Health Statistics (National Center for Health Statistics)
Major Legal Resources
Legal Encyclopedias and Yearbooks (Encyclopedia of American Law)
Legal Directories (Lawyer Locator)
Legal Databases and Indexes (Lexis)
Legal Online Resources (FindLaw)
Evaluating Medical, Legal, and Business Resources
Geography explores the relationship between the
earth and its people through the study of place, space, and environment.
It provides information about location, visualization of land area relationships, directions, makeup of land area, environmental and climatic or ecological factors, historical references
Evaluating Geographic Resources
Scale and Projection
Gazetteers and Geographical Dictionaries
A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas. They typically contain information concerning the geographical makeup, social statistics and physical features of a country, region, or continent.
Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online
Geographic Names Information System
Maps & Atlases
An atlas is a book of maps or charts
Major World Atlases (Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World
Medium-Sized Atlases (Hammond World Atlas)
Desk and Student Atlases (Goode's World Atlas)
Historical Atlases (Shepherd's Historical Atlas)
Thematic Atlases (Atlas of World History)
Road Atlases and Maps (Rand McNally Road Atlas)
U.S. Government Publications & Maps
Geological maps
Topographical maps
GIS maps
Travel Guides
Michelin Green Guides
Lonely Planet
Woodall's Campground Directory
A biography is the story of a real person's life (alive or deceased) written by someone other than that person.
They can be used to find:
Minimal information (full name, dates of importance, nationality, field of study)
Extensive Information
Evaluating Biographies
Length of entry
Criteria for inclusion
Frequency of updates
References for further reading
Types of Biographies
Indexes (Biography and Geneology Master Index)
Biographies of contemporary people (Who's Who in America)
Retrospective biographies (American National Biography)
One-Volume biographical dictionaries (Chambers Biographical Dictionary)
Obituaries (New York Times Obituary Index, 1885-1968
Subject-based biographical tools (Contemporary Authors)
Biographical resources featuring ethnic/cultural heritage (Who's Who Among African Americans)
Government publications are informational matter which is published as an individual document at government expense or as required by law.
Some subjects are only available from government publications.
The government deals with nearly every part of a citizen's life.
The U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) is their primary resource for producing, procuring, cataloging, indexing, authenticating, disseminating, and preserving the information of the U.S. Government in digital and tangible forms.

It is now primarily an online publisher.
Depository Libraries recieve the documents from the GPO and distribute them to the American public free of charge.

Evaluating Government Documents
Since these documents are published by the government, they are considered to be accurate, reliable, and up-to-date. However, sometimes they are republished by her publishing houses, you should check for:
Major Government Publication Resources
Guides to the US Government (Fundamentals of Government Information
Directories (Washington Information Directory)
Publications by Branches of the U.S. Government (Congressional Record, Federal Registry, ERIC, Monthly Labor Review, American Memory)
International Resources (Official Documents of the United Nations)
Part III
Special Topics In Reference and Information Work
When and How to use the Internet as a reference tool
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 13
Internet Strengths and Weaknesses
* Ease of use
* Currency
* Audiovisual Capabilities
* Exclusivity
* Interactivity
* Mass Convenience
* Scope
* Lack of regulated quality control
* Evaluation falls to the use
* Lack of overview
* Overwhelming results
* No guarantee of free full text
* Spotty coverage of historical material
* Volatility
Step 1
Ask Yourself, is the internet the right medium?
Step 2
Select the right internet tool
Step 3
Construct the right search terms
* Make a list of phrases and keywords
* Try alternate spellings
* Use a combination of words to establish context

Step 4
Use the right search operators
* Boolean operators
* Wildcards
* Truncations
* Quotation marks
* Parenthesis
* Proximity matrices
step 5
evaluate the search results
* Authority
* Reliability
* Currency
5 Steps to Successful Internet Reference
Search Engines
Metasearch Engines
Subject Directories

is becoming the "perfect search engine".
Readers' Advisory Service
* Geared for those who read for pleasure
* Good public service
* Read alike lists are recommended
History of reader's advisory service
* 1876-1920 Invented RA to serve the good of the patron and the nation
* 1920-1940 Privileging Nonfiction RA to educate adults
* 1940-1984 RA "Lost" in Adult Services - informal recommendations
* 1984-Present Reviving RA - concentrates mainly on fiction
Current Status and importance of RA
* Administrative support for RA
* Some libraries have RA departments
* Part of reference librarian's job
* RA is more like a conversation the a reference interview.
* Many readers gain knowledge while reading for pleasure
Readers' advisory Conversation
* "Tell me about a book you enjoyed."
* "Are you in the mood for something similar to that book or something different?"
* Use the conversation to discern the reader's taste.
* Use "rejection factors"
Useful Tools
* Guides to pronunciation of authors' names
* Sequels listed in order
* Best reviewed new books
* Books that have been made into movies
* Comprehensive elctronic tools
Fiction/Non-Fiction Connection
Gale's Books and Authors
EBESCO's Novelist
Common Mistakes
* Poor communication
* Inadequate people skills
* Body language that conveys irritation
* Responding negatively to a request
* showing condenscension
* Not conducting an RA interview
* Not using tools
Best Practices
* Make a connection with the reader
* Keep a reading log
* Restocking themed book displays
* Be approachable and friendly
* Listen actively
* Suggest several titles

Reference Sources and services for Children and Young Adults
reference Service Transactions For Youth
* Homework Centers
* Developmentally Appropriate Reference Materials
* Youth with Special Needs
* Make use of assistive technologies with all children
* Handicap accessible furniture and setup
* Limit distractions when giving instructions
* Evaluate the appropriateness of the material for each particular child
Digital Reference Service
* Balance between acces to informtaion and safety
* Consider quality and format
* Teach information literacy
* Be aware of the positive and negative uses of social networking
* Provide internet safety advice to youth
* Be aware of the rick of technical problems like malevolent software
* Use government resources to teach the importance of credibility in wesites
Evaluating Reference Services to Youth
* Surveys
* Focus Groups
1. Greet the young patron
2. Introduce yourself
3. Make eye contact, smile, wand wait for the child to respond
4. Establish proximity
5. Eliminate physical barriers and distance
6. When demonstrating online searches, be sure the child can see the screen
7.Allow time for the child to phrase his question
8. Don't talk too much or jump to conclusions
9. Accompany child to resources
10. Avoid the use of sarcasm and figures of speech
The future of reference services for Youth
* Support academic achievement
* Encourage information literacy
* Make the library a "destination" place
* Develop new kinds of reference service
* Provide access to electronic formats
* Address the learning styles of the digitally immersed
Managing Reference Services For Youth
Establish policies and procedures
Ongoing evaluation of refernce services and sources
Knowing your audience
Awareness of trends and issues in providing services to children
Approaches to
Information Literacy
Various approaches to incorporating information literacy into the curriculum
* Big 6
* Literacy presentations in class
* Working as a liason with an academic department
* Providing workshops for faculty
Information Literacy by Type of Library
School Media Centers
Structured approach on how to do research
Collaboration between LMS & teachers
Academic library
More structured research
LMS works with faculty
Public Library
One-to-one with LMS
Structured programs to teach computers and online databases
Special Library
One-to-one with LMS
Apply corporate terminology
* One of the greatest problems in the use of information
* Student need to be taught to respect intellectual freedom
* Teach students how to cite sources and integrate information into their writing without copying
Information Literacy in
a classroom setting
1. Recognize the need for instruction.
2. Develop skills using information technologies
3. Access information from appropriate sources.
4. Critically analyze and evaluate sources.
5. Process and organize information
6. Apply information for effective and creatvie decision making.
7. Effectively communicate information and knowledge
8. Understand and respect the ethical, legal, and sociopolitical aspects of information and technologies.
9. Develop an appreciation of lifelong learning
Impact of new technology on teaching information literacy
* Understand the sources available
* Select appropriate sources
* Must be able to criticlally evaluate resources
* Teach complex research methods and strategies
* Topic selection and how to narrow the topic
* How to search catalogs and indexes
Assessment and evaluation of Information Literacy
* Surveys
* Pre-tests
* Post-tests
* Focus Groups
* Assessment built into the assignments
* Formative and summative evaluations
* Short-term and longitudinal evaluations
Information Literacy in the Reference Department
Chapter 17
Selecting and Evaluating Reference Materials
Chapter 18
Ethics in Reference
Chapter 19
Managing Reference Departments
Chapter 20
Assessing and Improving Reference Services
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
the Future of Information Service
Part IV
Developing and Managing Reference Collections and Services

* Evaluate relevance
* Evaluate currency
* Know community needs and interests
* Know how different reference materials are used
* Know subject and how much updating is needed
* Know how to evaluate reference materials
Reference collection development consists of :
* Identifying new reference material
* Management of the reference budget, including approval plans, standing orders, exchange agreements,negotiations with vendors, and cooperative collection development
* Ongoing assessment of the reference collection
* Weeding the reference collection
* Writing and updating a new reference collection development policy
* Promoting and marketing new reference materials to the library’s users
Identifying, selecting, and evaluating new reference materials
* Reviews – Booklist’s “Reference Books Bulletin”, Library Journal, Outstanding Reference Sources
* Evaluation Criteria
o Scope
o Quality of content
o Authority of author and/or publisher
o Accuracy of content
o Currency
o Ease of use, including usability, searching capabilities, and response time (for electronic resources)
o Arrangement of material
o Appropriateness to the audience/ meeting of user needs
o Format
o Cost
Writing a Reference Collection Development Policy
* Introduction that describes the library, its clientele, and it's areas of research or reference service
* Description of the size and scope of the collection
* Formats of materials collected, with a separate section on electronic resources
* Collecting levels by subject
* Types or reference materials collected
* Description of the responsibilities of staff and others for selection
* Criteria for selection, assessment, and weeding
* Sources of funding
* External relationships with other libraries, consortial arrangements, and resource sharing
* Policy for dealing with challenged works and censorship
Promoting and Marketing Reference Materials to Library Users
* Staff needs to be familiar with e-resources

* Feature databases in newsletters, bookmarks, social media

* Encourage staff to tell users about the e-resources
Reference section must be the most used, specific , and selective section.
1939 Professional Code of Ethics developed by ALA and intended as a “guide to ethical decision making”.

The four obligations addressed are to::
* Protect confidentiality
* Provide a high level of service
* Avoid conflicts of interest (including censorship and threats to intellectual freedom)
* Provide access

Other professional organizations have adopted their own code of ethics based on the ALA code.
Service Ethics
The reference librarian should:
* Give out only the information that they are qualified to give
* Increase effectiveness by collaborating with colleagues, users, individuals, and entities outside the library
* Provide equitable access to all users – proportional to the needs of the user
* Communicate effectively
* Help users to use services and resources that are available
* Assess the effectiveness and necessity of library instruction and reference services
Equitable Access to Information
- 1939 ALA “Library Bill of Rights” – guidelines for services based on equitable access and intellectual freedoms

–- electronic records, records of online searches, reference questions, and personal data should be protected.

Conflicts of Interest
–- library’s dealings should be transparent to correct potential conflicts
Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights

* Copyright Exceptions and Limitations
o Public domain – ideas, facts, government works
o First sale doctrine – allows libraries to lend books and other materials it has purchased
o Fair use allows for uses of copyright materials under certain circumstances
Four criteria to consider:
* The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes
* Nature of the copyrighted work
* The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
* The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work
o Section 108 Exceptions – US Copyright Act of 1976 provides libraries and archives to make copies without permission of the copyright holder for preservation of unpublished works and the replacement of published works. Copies cannot be publicly displayed.
o Orphan Works
o Open Access
o Creative Commons
o Library Instruction and Intellectual Property
o Digital Rights Management
Intellectual Freedom and Human Rights
o Censorship

o Neutrality
1. Planning

2. Organizing

3. Staffing

4. Directing

5. Controlling
* Organizing Reference Departments
o Self-directed or team-based management
* Organizing Staff
o The reference desk
* Managing service delivery
o Roving or Mobile Services
o Virtual services
o Anytime, anywhere access –
o chat reference
o “Ask a” services
* IM
* Chat
* RSS feeds
* Podcasts
* Vodcasts
* VoIP
o Electronic Resource Management

o Web Management

o Reference Marketing

o Virtual Reference Service Evaluation
Five Functions Common to All Managers
What to Assess
* Reference collection

* Reference staff

* Reference services
Acting on Assessments
* Quantify

* Strategize
o Do you want to launch a new reference initiative?
o Do you merely want to get a “pulse” on user needs and expectations?
o Do you want to reprioritize funding allocation?
o Do you want to attract new funding?

* Visualize

Ongoing Assessments are imperative.
How to assess
* Suggestion boxes
* Surveys/telephone/ e-mail/ online surveys
* Mailed Questionnaires
* Interviews
* Observations
o Direct -activity/service monitored and observations recorded
o Hidden - students observes reference interview and records observation while reference librarian is unaware
o Self-imposed - transaction diaries, journals, preset forms, and reference activity notebooks
* Focus groups
o Unbiased, unselfconscious, and trained facilitators
o Six to twelve participants
o 45-90 minute sessions
o 6-10 questions
o Minimum of 3 groups for preliminary investigation,

o Multiplicity of assessment instruments
o Greater depth of evaluative understanding
o Greater reliability
o Relatively limited replicability
o Most effective when
* A single survey method is unconvincing
* A novel service or new collection is being introduced.
* Staff has the time and expertise to expend on multiple assessments and analyses
* Advance weighting is attributed to each method in case of discrepancies between two results.
Case Studies
Reference 2.0
– cooperative content creation
a. Wikis

b. Blogs

c. Microblogs

d. Folksonomies

e. Podcasting
Social networking
a. Facebook

b. LinkedIn

c. MySpace

d. Google +
a. Secondlife

b. Multi format reference through IM

c. SMS

d. Mobile reference
a. Widgets

b. RSS feeds

c. Mashup initiatives
Basic elements of libraries remain but the ways to deliver services continue to evolve rapidly.

Librarians must focus on the technology their users have adopted.

Four basic functions will remain
1. Teaching people how to use the library and its resources.
2. Answering information questions
3. Recommending information services
4. Promoting the library

Providing new service models
* No more reference desk – - librarians are available by phone, chat, e-mail, text, or in office
* Librarians roving to talk to users
* Teach classes
21st century librarians will need:
* Ability to provide information use Reference 2.0 technologies
* Knowledge of how to select electronic resources
* Online searching expertise
* Desire to share knowledge through teaching
* Readers advisory skills
* Knowledge of how to develop an effective web presence
* Appreciation of the importance of marketing a program
* Familiarity with research on assessment and evaluation
* Interpersonal skills
* Ability to adapt to change
* Enthusiasm for career long learning
Planning the future
* Is the library following the interests of its community?
* Is the new technology something that should be implemented immediately one should it be tested first?
* How does a new technology impact existing library services?
* How does a new technology link to other existing technologies?
* How do librarians keep themselves prepared and informed about new technologies?

The future of reference is high tech and high touch.

Focus will be user centered.

Librarians will continue to change their service model. They will provide instruction in the use of resources, develop tutorials, LibGuides, and FAQ’s for the library website. They will plan outreach services to prospective users , face-to-face or virtually. Reference services will be integrated and seamless.
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