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Reactions to the United States
Transcript of Reactions to the United States
Roberts, W. Adolphe. “Great Men of the Caribbean: José Martí.” Caribbean Quarterly 1.4 (1949/1950): 4-6. JSTOR. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. Ruben Dario "Ariel" by
José Enrique Rodó
-Essay written in 1900
-Uses characters from Shakespeare's The Tempest to symbolize Latin America and the U.S. with a wise man named Prospero to teach parables
-Similar to Martí, he warns young Latin Americans against the U.S. and materialism
-Worried by U.S. victory in Spanish-American War in 1898 How did Latin America view the U.S.? José María Vargas Vila José Enrique Rodó Ariel “I love your rebellious and American word... which crosses submissive backs or lying lips: I love the brotherhood with which you associate yourself, in this century of construction and of fighting."
o Quote from a letter from Jose Marti to Vargas Vila, March 14, 1894
Excerpts from Facing the Barbarians:
“Why not tell the...truth about the barbarian race and people? An arrogant and voracious race...fixed on conquest...cruel, insolent...hatefully convinced of their own superiority” (142).
“Conquest always and everywhere. And the name of this despicable crime has been changed to Victory” (141).”
“Let there be union embracing...our entire continent, according to Bolívar’s great and radiant vision!” (142).
“Let us admit the invasion of Progress, but stop the progress of Invasion” (142). To Roosevelt Our America SOURCES: "Rodó, José Enrique 1871-1917." Concise Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature. Routledge: Credo Reference Collections, 2000. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. "Our America"
by José Martí
-Published in 1892 in both a Mexican newspaper and a New-York based Latin American paper
-Influenced by the fight for Cuban independence and the possibility of U.S. involvement
-References historical events in Latin American history to appeal to audience
-Main idea is that good men will know their own country/regional identity and not need to follow European influence
-Warns that the U.S. will be the next country to try to force its influence on Latin America SOURCES: Acuña, Rodolfo, and Guadalupe Compean. Voices Of The U.S. Latino Experience. n.p.: Greenwood Press, 2008. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 13 Jan. 2013. Espitia, Juan Carlos Gonzalez. "Bibliography." Jose Maria Vargas Vila Digital Library. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 12 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2013.
Espitia, Juan Carlos Gonzalez. "Introduction." Jose Maria Vargas Vila Digital Library. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 12 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. SOURCES: -"Dario was one of the most admired poets in Latin America. He was the father of Latin American modernism and wielded enormous influence with Latino intellectuals and literary folk."
-This poem expresses how Latin America feared the United States and its intentions to dominate the region through force"
-Dario refers to Roosevelt as a "Hunter"
-U.S. was seen as Godless, English-speakers
"And, although you count on everything, you lack one thing: God!"
-He foreshadows the technology of things to come with the line:
“You are a professor of Energy / as today's madmen say,” probably because of the steam-engines of the day, but the next stanza he writes on weaponry “...life is fire / that progress is an eruption / wherever you shoot / is your future.”
-If the United States could push around one of the biggest powers of South America with is bullets and technology, how was this to be seen by smaller countries like Nicaragua?
-Dario was correct in his predictions; however, he could not have foreseen that the Panamanian people would have gained so much from their interactions with the United States.
-Today, the Panama Canal is owned and operated by the Panamanian people, there are no military bases, and US-Panama relations are strong. SOURCES: 1924-1990
- FARC Commander (Armed Forces of the Colombian Revolution)
-Considers himself a communist revolutionary
- Battled in Marquetalia in 1964 against the Colombian army
-Moved like a nomad and fought when he chose to.
-Quotes the teachings of Manuel Marulanda (commonly called Tirofijo meaning
-He believed that knowledge of their political and military powers would explain
-Freeing the country from North American oppression and a true land reform for
- Believed in moral strength and ethics “We are revolutionaries not thieves”
-Reactionists and imperialists call him the “bandolero Tirofijo” because of the
many nightmares he gave the Colombian military
-Died at age 67 at hideout in Colombia "Jacobo Arenas." The San Francisco Chronicle: 15 Aug. 1990). EBSCO Collection. Web. 14 Jan. 2013