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The Social Learning Theory
Transcript of The Social Learning Theory
Bandura (1977) Sutherland cont. Differential Association Theory first explicitly stated in the 1939 edition of 'Principles of Criminology'
criminal behaviour is learned through association with other people, usually in the form of groups
"This learning includes both the acquisition of attitudes towards the commission of certain acts and the learning of criminal techniques"- 'Psychology and Crime: Myths and Reality' by Peter B. Ainsworth
According to Sutherland, the learning of criminal behaviour is no different to the learning of any other form of behaviour. Bibliography Psychology and Crime: Myths and Reality - Peter B. Ainswoth What are Social Learning Theories? Social learning theories suggest that committing crime has little to do with genes or personality, but is instead a learned response to observing the social environment around them Edwin H. Sutherland (1939) Biography American sociologist, studied his doctorate at the University of Chicago.
he was influenced by their approach to the study of crime.
They emphasized human behaviour is determined by social and environmental conditions. Differential Association Theory the 9 principles of Differential Association are: 1-Criminal behaviour is learned
2-criminal behaviour is learned in interaction with others in the process of communication
3- learning criminal behaviour occurs within primary groups (family, friends, peers)
4- learning criminal behaviour involves learning the techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes
5- The specific direction of motives and attitudes is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.
6- A person becomes a criminal when there is an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law.
7- Differential associations vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
8- The process of learning criminal behavior involves all the mechanisms involved in any other learning.
9- Although criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and attitudes, criminal behavior and motives are not explained nor excused by the same needs and attitudes, since non criminal behavior is explained by the same general needs and attitudes. http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html http://criminology.wikia.com/wiki/Differential_Association_Theory Criticisms of the Differential Association Theory Implying that mere interaction with criminals will lead to becoming a criminal yourself however: this was not actually Sutherland's suggestion. He wanted there to be multiple facets to consider when it comes to evaluating criminal behaviour. The idea is that if the individual is exposed to more social acceptance of criminal behaviour than they are to opposition of criminal behaviour than they are more likely to act that way them self. Further Criticism of Sutherland fails to explain behaviour of those who are not exposed to criminals of any description. For Example A child from an affluent family who has been privately educated his entire life shoplifting Albert Bandura (1977) Biography though others since Sutherland have explored aspects of Social Learning Theories, Albert Bandura's writings are often considered the epitome of the theory. Bandura believed that a great deal of a persons behaviour is a direct result learning experiences. in this case, learning would include both observing and possibly imitating the behaviour of others and then being rewarded (or punished) for exhibiting that behaviour.
people behave in violent or aggressive ways mainly because they see others behaving in a violent or aggressive way. The Bobo Doll experiment Conducted by Bandura in 1961 to see if social behaviours like aggression could be learned through observation.
he tested 36 boys and 36 girls from the Stanford University Nursery School, all aged between 3 and 6 years old, with two "role models", one male and one female.
Bandura and his researchers pre-tested the children to see how aggressive they were, then placed the children into groups with other children who had similar levels of aggression. Stage 1- Modeling http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html Children enter the room, then the model enters. The child is set up to make pictures and play. The model goes to a corner of the room with a toy set, a mallet and an inflatable doll called a Bobo doll.
In the non-aggressive conditions, the model ignores the doll.
In the aggressive conditions, the model was violent towards the doll using distinctive, easy to imitate actions and saying things like "pow" and "sock him in the nose". The Three Stages of the Bobo Doll Experiment Stage 1- Modeling
Stage 2- Aggression arousal
Stage 3- Test For Delayed Immitation Stage 2- Aggression Arousal the child is subjected to "mild aggression arousal".
he or she is taken to a room with some attractive toys.
as soon as the child started to play with the toys, the toys were taken away and the child was told that they were the examiners special toys, and were being saved for the other kids. Stage 3- Test for Delayed Imitation The next room contained some non-aggressive toys (tea sets, stuffed bears, crayons and plastic animals) and some aggressive toys (a mallet and peg board, dart guns) and a 3 foot Bobo doll.
The children were left alone for 20 minutes and their behaviour was observed through a one-way mirror. The Results children who observed the aggressive models had far more aggressive reactions than the non-aggressive or control groups.
The girls in the aggressive model conditions showed more physically aggressive responses towards the male models, and more verbally aggressive responses towards the female models.
Boys were more likely to imitate same-sex models than girls.
Boys imitated more physically aggressive acts than girls. There was little difference in the verbal aggression between boys and girls. Bandura’s findings support his theory, that is, the idea that children learn social behaviour such as aggression through the process of observing the behaviour of another person.