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Destiny Matos

on 18 March 2015

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Transcript of Biotechnology

What is Biotechnology?
The First Successful
The first successful nuclear transfer was on a frog conducted by Robert Briggs and Thomas King. The nucleus that was transplanted came from an early tadpole embryo.

The nuclear transfer from a differentiated cell in 1958 was the first successful transfer of its kind. It was conducted by John Gurdon, on a frog.

The first mammals cloned by nuclear transfer were three lambs, created when Steen Willadsen used a chemical process to separate a cell from an 8-cell lamb embryo. He then applied a small electrical shock to fuse it to a nucleus-free egg cell.
Where Is It Currently Being Studied?
The Roslin Institute is the institute where Dolly the sheep was created. They collaborated with PPL Therapeutics.

Currently, Geron Corporation is researching human embryonic stem cell. They acquired their techology from The Roslin Institute company: Roslin Bio-Med.

Lazaron BioTechnologies, Ltd. is focusing on regeneive cell technologies.

Others are ViaGen, Cyagra, and Advanced Cell Technologies

Genetic Savings and Clone
PPL Therapeutics
What is cloning?
Cloning is a term that refers to different processes which are used to produce genetically identical copies of any one organism. The newly copied material is called a clone.
Clones have the same genetic makeup as the original organism.
Scientists have cloned genes, cells, tissues and whole organisms before.
To begin you need an empty egg cell, a somatic cell (from the animal to be cloned) and a needle and syringe. The process of cloning has four steps.
Those steps are:
Removing the nucleus from the somatic cell;
Removing the nucleus from the egg cell;
Inserting the nucleus from the somatic cell into the egg cell;
And placing the egg cell into the womb.
Hans Spemann developed the idea to transfer one cell's nucleus into an egg cell without a nucleus; making a basis for cloning experiments.

Spemann did an experiment which proved that the cell nucleus controls the embryonic development of an organism.

Dr. Ian Wilmut (who was a scientist at the Roslin Institute) helped create Dolly -- the first cloned animal from an adult cell.
Biotechnology -- Cloning
Biotechnology is the use of living systems or organisms to make useful products, or a technological application that uses biology to make/further develop products or processes for specific use.
Discovered Cloning?
"EasyBib: The Free Automatic Bibliography Composer." EasyBib. Imagine Easy Solutions, LLC, 2014. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.
Kendall, Susan K., Ph.D. "Companies Doing Cloning." Companies Doing Cloning. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.
Genetic Science Learning Center. "The History of Cloning." Learn.Genetics 9 March 2015
"Ian Wilmut Facts." Ian Wilmut Facts. The Gale Group Inc., 2010. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.
"Sir Ian Wilmut". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 9 Mar. 2015
"Cloning Fact Sheet." Cloning Fact Sheet. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015. <http://www.genome.gov/25020028>.
"History of Cloning." History of Cloning. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015. <http://bsp.med.harvard.edu/?q=node%2F18>.
Genetic Science Learning Center. "Why Clone?." Learn.Genetics 11 March 2015 <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whyclone/>.
"Explore More: Genetic Engineering." Explore More: Genetic Engineering. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015. <http://www.iptv.org/exploremore/ge/what/clone.cfm>.
"The Pros and Cons of Cloning: Is It Worth the Risk?" Undemy Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015. <https://blog.udemy.com/pros-and-cons-of-cloning/>.
Major Breakthrough
Companies That Closed
Why Do People Use Cloning?
People use cloning for a variety of different reasons. Cloning can be used for bringing back endangered/extinct animals and making mutated animals with special traits. It can also be used for creating stem cells, making copies of cells or tissues for surgeries, organ implants, etc. In addition, animals are being cloned if they have rich milk/meat, creating better products. If certain genes are altered in milk producing animals, scientists can make them produce medicinal drugs.
The first successful nuclear transfer occurred in 1952.
In 1885 the first demonstration of artificial embryo twinning came up.
Hans Spemann developed the idea to put a nucleus into a cell lacking a nucleus in 1928.
Pros & Cons of Cloning
Pros: Extinct and endangered animals can be saved, lives can be saved by use of medicinal drugs and / or cloned organs / tissues.
Cons: Organisms often show signs of aging and diseases earlier in life; there is no difference in the genes.
My Position
I think that cloning is good because, it has the potential save lives.
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