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Summary of Cellular Respiration
Transcript of Summary of Cellular Respiration
A Summary Cellular Respiration: A series of metabolic reactions
and processes that take place in
organisms' cells to convert biochemical
energy from nutrients into ATP. Mitochondria have two membranes, one is
a smooth outer membrane, and the other is
a highly folded inner membrane (folded to increase surface area for chemical reactions to take place) that contains many proteins used in cellular respiration. ATP may be formed by substrate-level phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorilation.
Substrate-level phosphorylation does not require oxygen; Oxidative phosphorylation does.
In substrate level phosphorylation, a phosphate group is attached to ADP in an enzyme-catalysed reaction.
Oxidative phosphorylation is made up of redox reactions involving NAD+, FAD, an electron transport chain, the inner mitochondrial membrane, ATPase, and oxygen as the final electron acceptor Phosphorylation is the addition of a
phosphate (PO4) to a protein or other
organic molecule. Cellular respiration begins in the cytoplasm and, in the case of aerobic cellular respiration, is completed in the mitochondria in eukaryotes; it takes place in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. It produces
two three-carbon pyruvate molecules from a
six-carbon glucose molecule. Glycolysis produces two ATP and two NADH. Pyruvate oxidation occurs in the mitochondria.
In this process, a CO2 portion is cleaved from
pyruvate and removed from the cell as waste.
The remaining two-carbon acetyl group attaches
to coenzyme A to produce acetyl-CoA. In this
reaction, two NADH and two CO2 are formed (one
for each of the pyruvate molecules). The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. It begins when acetyl-CoA reacts with
oxaloacetate to produce citrate. The two carbon atoms introduced by acetyl-CoA are removed as two CO2, one ATP molecule is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation, one FADH2 and three NADH are produced, and the final step regenerates oxaloacetate. The elcetron transport chain, associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, transports electrons through a series of redox reactions that release free energy used yo pump protons into the mitochondrial intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical gradient that is a source of free energy. In chemiosmosis, protons move through ATPase complexes embedded in the inner membrane, releasing free energy that drives the synthesis of ATP. Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons that pass through the electron transport chain. If oxygen is not available, the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and chemiosmosis come to a halt.