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I know EVERYTHING AP Euro Timeline
Transcript of I know EVERYTHING AP Euro Timeline
Plato: Mathematician in Greece, he was the apprentice of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle
Aristotle: Aristotle was the apprentice of Plato, and a great philosopher on polymath. He also taught Alexander the Great.
Socrates: He was the teacher of Plato, and is credited as one of the founders of Western Philosophy.
Epicurus: He was a Greek philosopher, and founder of Epicureanism
All of these great thinkers inspired the people of the Renaissance. Without their ingenuity and thinking methods, we would not have had the Renaissance era. People of the Renaissance Dante: He is noted with writing the book, "Divine Comedy" which talks about the different levels of Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven.
Petrarch: He is the father of humanism, and one of the first to bring back the humanistic movement during the Renaissance. He believed in coexistence of classical and Christian values.
Da Vinci: Was a universal man of art, science, and military strategy. His most notable accomplishment was painting the "Mona Lisa".
Michelangelo: Believed in the glorification of the human body and spirit. He is famous for painting the Sistine Chapel.
Raphael: Painted the "School of Athens" in the Vatican, which portrayed famous Greek philosophers as major Renaissance figures.
Medicis: They were a family of bankers who were practically the rulers of Florence. They eventually became royal, and funded a lot of the Renaissance thinker's projects. One of the more famous ones is "The Prince" by Machiavelli.
Machiavelli: He is the man who wrote the book titled, "The Prince." It was funded by the Medici family, and if anything, it is written about them as well.
Guttenberg: He is the man who invented the movable type printing press. This invention allowed ideas to be spread easily and efficiently. It furthered the education of peasants. People of the Reformation Martin Luther: He was the first leader of the Reformation and also the founder of Lutheranism. He wrote the book, "The 95 Theses" which talks about the wrong doings of the Catholic Church.
John Calvin: He is a radical protestant known for thinking about predestination. He founded Calvinism which became an official religion after the Treaty of Westphalia.
Erasmus: He was a humanist who wrote letters to the Catholic Church about religious toleration, but he hid in the Netherlands and never came close to the church. He wrote the book, "The Praise of Folly" which is a satire of the Roman Catholic Church. Explorers Columbus: He sailed the ocean blue in 14 hundred and 92. He founded the West Indies in the name of Spain. People of the Counter Reformation Loyola: He was a Spanish knight who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). He emerged as a leader in the Counter Reformation.
Leo X: He was a Pope from 1513 to 1521. He was also one of the Medicis. Leo X was the last non priest to be elected Pope, and he was the one who challenged Luther's 95 Theses. Copernicus: Developed the Heliocentric Solar System theory, which challenged the then excepted Earth centered theory.
Kepler: He developed math laws regarding the orbits of planets.
Galileo: He is credited with inventing the telescope, law inertia, and the uniformity of motion.
Newton: He invented Calculus, laws of gravity, and established the Royal Society. People of the Scientific Revolution People of the Age of Absolutism Henry VII: Henry was the first monarch of the House of Tudor, and the last king to win his throne on the battle field. He also stocked the English coffers with a lot of money.
Henry VIII: He was the king who created the Anglican Church when he succeeded from the Roman Catholic Church in order to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon.
Peter the Great: He was a Russian tzar who really advanced Russian society. He studied other western European nations in order to modernize his own. He was also rather tall. His step mom was incredibly, unbelievably, ugly.
Thomas More: He was promoted to Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII, but opposed the succession of England from the Roman Catholic Church and was beheaded. He wrote “Utopia” which describes a fictional island society where everything is perfect. People of the English Civil War Charles I: He is the last English king before the Civil war. He lead the Cavaliers in the war, which supported the royalists. He lost the war and was decapitated.
Cromwell: Cromwell led the roundheads (those who supported parliament) in the civil war. He won, and became Lord Protectorate of the Commonwealth of England.
Charles II: He was the son of Charles I. After Cromwell's death in 1660, he became the king again, this time with limited power. Thomas Hobbes: He believed people are naturally cruel and corrupt and must submit themselves to the ruling of an absolute monarch. His book “Leviathan” outlines how a social contract should be used to allow a monarch to rule the people.
John Locke: One of the leading thinkers of the Enlightenment, he believed every person was born with natural rights; rights to life, liberty, and property. His ideas are reflected in the US Declaration of Independence. He also believed people are born knowing nothing, or with a blank slate, and that knowledge is gained through experience and perception alone.
Voltaire: He was a deist who believed in freedom of thought. He popularized the works of Newton and was greatly inspired by the works of John Locke.
Montesquieu: He believed that the climate and situations a nation goes through are what determine the type of government it has. He came up with the idea of separation of powers to making it much more difficult for any one branch of government to rule the others.
Rousseau: He was a French philosopher who was greatly inspired by John Locke. He built on Locke’s ideas in his book “On the Social Contract.” He political views influenced the French Revolution and he was later deemed a national hero. Enlightenment People Inventions and Creations that Changed Mankind 1.Printing Press: the printing press was an invention that is responsible for so much change in the world. Mainly, the printing press allowed knowledge to be passed. It started off with printing things such as the Bible, allowing the common person to read it for themselves (helping the Reformation) to also printing scientific journals among other things (helping scientist share and improve on ideas in the scientific revolution).
2.Calculus: was a study of math invented by Newton. It gives us many more advances in different things that the scientific world could not do without calculus, such as physics.
3.Gravity: was another thing that Newton found laws to. His basic 3 laws of gravity are widely accepted and taught everywhere. This too helped in other subjects of science such as physics.
4.Telescope: the telescope was invented by Galileo, and it greatly helped us get a deeper understanding for our universe and things that we hadn’t cared about knowing before.
5.Pendulum clock: The pendulum clock is a great example of innovativeness in Europe. Invented by Christiaan Huygens, it helped Europe advance as a place where people can think outside of the box. 6.Galleys: was a warship that proved to be very effective. Ships and other sea going vessels had been around for quite some time, but with the advancement of modern technologies, the galleys could now be crafted in such a way to cut through water more efficiently, and stay afloat under heavier damage.
7.Astrolabes: these were another invention that helped mariners establish where they were at in the middle of the ocean as well as where the land was at that they needed to get to, by taking into consideration the moon, sun, and star’s position.
8.Modern maps: many maps were improved upon due to exploration and new discoveries. The new maps helped explorers and other navigators.
9.Russia’s Army: Russia had a formidable army due to its new technologies. They used many new war strategies as well as state of the art equipment to be the deadliest army in Europe for quite some time. Peter the Great grew such a powerful army by visiting other nations and seeing what he would want in his super army.
10.Improved art forms: During the Renaissance, many artists started to use new forms of painting. They painted things much more lifelike and three dimensional. This gave them the ability to paint portraits of kings and queens that would have been as good as taking a photograph with a modern camera. 11.Constitutional Monarchy: This is an idea that came after the English Civil War. It gave the people more power in government, and is ultimately the stepping stones towards democratically elected governments, like we have in many places today.
12.New Model Army: This army came out of the English Civil War. What made the New Model Army unique was that it didn’t consist of part time militia fighters, the men who served were full time soldiers. This was an entirely new idea, but one that proved to be effective in battle.
13.Lassaiz-Faire Economics: This idea came out of the enlightenment time period from an economist named Adam Smith. He wrote a book about how economies are far better off when governments keep their hands off and do not try to regulate them. His economic views are still widely used in economics today.
14.The Invisible Hand: This is another economic theory. It says that when the market gets out of shape, an invisible hand will auto corrects the market, and bring it back to equilibrium in the long run. Again, this economic theory is still used by the top economists in the world today.
15.Copernicus’s Heliocentric Theory: This is another theory that was established. It says that the Earth is not the center of our solar system, but rather the Sun is. In its time, everyone thought that the Earth was stationary and the sun and moon revolved around it. After Copernicus, we discover that that is not true. Inventions Part II Inventions Part III THE END