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I know EVERYTHING AP Euro Timeline

I literally know everything...about AP Euro
by

Matthew Ziegeler

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of I know EVERYTHING AP Euro Timeline

I Know Everything Timeline AP EUROPEAN HISTORY The Black Plague 1347 until medical breakthrough The Black Plague is an event in European history that terrified all. There were many plagues before this one, but none that had hit Europe. The Black Plague started when diseased fleas infected many rats in Asia. Then, these rats infested merchant ships that were headed for Europe. The sailors aboard those ships then got infected. The disease then began to spread like wild fire, and the European devastation began. In the end, this disease killed off 1/3 of Europe's population. This number equates to reducing the world's population by approximately 100 million people in the 14th century. Humanism Starts in Ancient Greece The Humanistic movement started in ancient Greece, and began reappear in the mid to late 14th century. The Humanist movement provoked thoughts about everything, but mainly thoughts in great detail about ethics, social sciences, and the value of knowledge. Humanism inspired movements such as the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. There is not a set time period for the humanism movement, because it is all encompassing and even continues today. Renaissance Starts in the early 15th century The Renaissance is a time period of greater thinking and questioning. It started in Florence, Italy. The reason for its origin location is because Florence was a wealthy city state with many resources that included but were not limited to paper and movable type. Those resources helped ideas spread fast and accurate across Europe. In total, it lasted about 300 years and was the factor for getting Europe out of the middle ages. Exploration late 15th century The Age of Exploration was incredibly important for many reasons. The first nations to start the trend of exploration were Portugal and Spain. These first few explorers were attempting to find a quicker route to the East Indies. As a result, they found an entirely new world that they hadn't realized existed. Many European countries followed suit shortly after and sent out voyages hopeful for finding riches and territory to bring back and claim to their motherland. After a little bit of exploration, the nations began to conquest the people in the new land, and make them their own. Once again, this exploration idea is not something that simply ends, but rather continues forever. Reformation 1517 to about the end of the 30 Years War The Reformation is started by Martin Luther. He posted his ideas in a book called the 95 Theses. The book explained problems with the Catholic Church, and stirred up questions regarding practices of ceremony, and what the Bible actually said. He encouraged people to think for themselves and actually read the Bible, which was now becoming possible due to the invention of the printing press. Four years after he posted this book, the Catholic Church recognized what he was doing, and held the Diet of Worms in order to address Luther and the movement he was creating. Northern Europe was effected greater than the areas in southern Europe simply because they were farther away from the Catholic Church, and had more power to themselves. The Reformation created many heated religious wars in central Europe, which didn't end until the treaty of Westphalia in 1648. The Reformation was in large part due to the ideas that people can think for themselves and decide what they want from knowledge that they acquire. Peasants' War 1524 to 1526 The Peasants' War is a result of the peasants taking the Reformation the wrong way. They thought that Martin Luther was inspiring them to rebel against those who oppressed them, when in reality, he was talking about the oppression of the Catholic Church. The aristocracy of the peasants' easily thwarted the uprising. In the process, they killed 1/3 of the poorly armed peasants. The Counter Reformation 1545 until the end of the 30 years war The Counter Reformation is the Catholic Church's attempt to bring back those who left during the Protestant Reformation. It was somewhat an admission of the mistakes the Catholic Church had made in the past, and now they were promising to correct them. The Counter Reformation started with the Council of Trent in 1545. At this meeting, Catholic Church officials established what was wrong and what they must do to fix it. They realized that things like indulgences and other corruption of the church must be extinguished. Scientific Revolution end of the Renaissance era and continued until the late 18th century The Scientific Revolution was a time period after the Renaissance that stressed the expansion of scientific knowledge and understanding of the world and how it worked. Information was dug into deeper such as astrology which became the study of astronomy. Catholic and Protestants came together and united over many scientific advances 30 Years War 1618-1648 The 30 Years War was a religious and national conflict within the Germanic region of the Holy Roman Empire. It started as a war centered around religion with some issues regarding politics, but ended as a war centered around politics with some issued regarding religion. The Treaty of Westphalia ended the war in the year 1648. Some things it accomplished was the recognition of Calvinism as a coequal religion with Catholicism and Lutheranism. Age of Absolutism 17th and 18th century The Age of Absolutism was an idea that was used in 17th and 18th century Europe. Many countries took to the idea. Monarchs of the countries successfully acquired money and influence of the states and took it largely for themselves. Some things that this age did was start a time period where the divine right came into question by the people, giving more power to the parliament in places like England. The English Civil War 1641 to 1649 The English Civil War was largely caused by the immense debt that Elizabeth I left after her reign, from the war with Spain. Parliament attempted to gain control by taking power from the monarch because they were scared of another Catholic outburst, similar to Mary I. Oliver Cromwell lead the Roundheads (Parliament) and opposed Charles I and the Cavaliers (Royalists). Charles I lost the war and his life. Some outcomes of the English Civil War include, Cromwell becoming Lord Protector and establishing the Commonwealth of England. Enlightenment 17th and 18th century The Enlightenment is stemmed from Humanism and the Scientific Revolution. It has a lot of emphasis on thinking rationally, spreading knowledge, and being educated. The main ideas of the Enlightenment were thought, spread, and talked about by philosophes. Many of these philosophes were from France, but also other European countries. Economic Change/Systems The economic outlook changes greatly throughout the history of Europe. One of the more notable figures in changing economic policy was Adam Smith. He wrote the book titled, "The Wealth of Nations" in 1776. This book talked about laissez faire economics (hands off economics). There was also great discussion about the invisible hand during this time period. They believed that the market will always correct itself through processes unknown to man, that naturally occur. Late 18th Century The Humanists People The humanist movement starts with many Greek and Roman thinkers. Some of the notable ones include:

Plato: Mathematician in Greece, he was the apprentice of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle

Aristotle: Aristotle was the apprentice of Plato, and a great philosopher on polymath. He also taught Alexander the Great.

Socrates: He was the teacher of Plato, and is credited as one of the founders of Western Philosophy.

Epicurus: He was a Greek philosopher, and founder of Epicureanism

All of these great thinkers inspired the people of the Renaissance. Without their ingenuity and thinking methods, we would not have had the Renaissance era. People of the Renaissance Dante: He is noted with writing the book, "Divine Comedy" which talks about the different levels of Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven.

Petrarch: He is the father of humanism, and one of the first to bring back the humanistic movement during the Renaissance. He believed in coexistence of classical and Christian values.

Da Vinci: Was a universal man of art, science, and military strategy. His most notable accomplishment was painting the "Mona Lisa".

Michelangelo: Believed in the glorification of the human body and spirit. He is famous for painting the Sistine Chapel.

Raphael: Painted the "School of Athens" in the Vatican, which portrayed famous Greek philosophers as major Renaissance figures.

Medicis: They were a family of bankers who were practically the rulers of Florence. They eventually became royal, and funded a lot of the Renaissance thinker's projects. One of the more famous ones is "The Prince" by Machiavelli.

Machiavelli: He is the man who wrote the book titled, "The Prince." It was funded by the Medici family, and if anything, it is written about them as well.

Guttenberg: He is the man who invented the movable type printing press. This invention allowed ideas to be spread easily and efficiently. It furthered the education of peasants. People of the Reformation Martin Luther: He was the first leader of the Reformation and also the founder of Lutheranism. He wrote the book, "The 95 Theses" which talks about the wrong doings of the Catholic Church.

John Calvin: He is a radical protestant known for thinking about predestination. He founded Calvinism which became an official religion after the Treaty of Westphalia.

Erasmus: He was a humanist who wrote letters to the Catholic Church about religious toleration, but he hid in the Netherlands and never came close to the church. He wrote the book, "The Praise of Folly" which is a satire of the Roman Catholic Church. Explorers Columbus: He sailed the ocean blue in 14 hundred and 92. He founded the West Indies in the name of Spain. People of the Counter Reformation Loyola: He was a Spanish knight who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). He emerged as a leader in the Counter Reformation.

Leo X: He was a Pope from 1513 to 1521. He was also one of the Medicis. Leo X was the last non priest to be elected Pope, and he was the one who challenged Luther's 95 Theses. Copernicus: Developed the Heliocentric Solar System theory, which challenged the then excepted Earth centered theory.

Kepler: He developed math laws regarding the orbits of planets.

Galileo: He is credited with inventing the telescope, law inertia, and the uniformity of motion.

Newton: He invented Calculus, laws of gravity, and established the Royal Society. People of the Scientific Revolution People of the Age of Absolutism Henry VII: Henry was the first monarch of the House of Tudor, and the last king to win his throne on the battle field. He also stocked the English coffers with a lot of money.

Henry VIII: He was the king who created the Anglican Church when he succeeded from the Roman Catholic Church in order to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon.

Peter the Great: He was a Russian tzar who really advanced Russian society. He studied other western European nations in order to modernize his own. He was also rather tall. His step mom was incredibly, unbelievably, ugly.

Thomas More: He was promoted to Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII, but opposed the succession of England from the Roman Catholic Church and was beheaded. He wrote “Utopia” which describes a fictional island society where everything is perfect. People of the English Civil War Charles I: He is the last English king before the Civil war. He lead the Cavaliers in the war, which supported the royalists. He lost the war and was decapitated.

Cromwell: Cromwell led the roundheads (those who supported parliament) in the civil war. He won, and became Lord Protectorate of the Commonwealth of England.

Charles II: He was the son of Charles I. After Cromwell's death in 1660, he became the king again, this time with limited power. Thomas Hobbes: He believed people are naturally cruel and corrupt and must submit themselves to the ruling of an absolute monarch. His book “Leviathan” outlines how a social contract should be used to allow a monarch to rule the people.

John Locke: One of the leading thinkers of the Enlightenment, he believed every person was born with natural rights; rights to life, liberty, and property. His ideas are reflected in the US Declaration of Independence. He also believed people are born knowing nothing, or with a blank slate, and that knowledge is gained through experience and perception alone.

Voltaire: He was a deist who believed in freedom of thought. He popularized the works of Newton and was greatly inspired by the works of John Locke.

Montesquieu: He believed that the climate and situations a nation goes through are what determine the type of government it has. He came up with the idea of separation of powers to making it much more difficult for any one branch of government to rule the others.

Rousseau: He was a French philosopher who was greatly inspired by John Locke. He built on Locke’s ideas in his book “On the Social Contract.” He political views influenced the French Revolution and he was later deemed a national hero. Enlightenment People Inventions and Creations that Changed Mankind 1.Printing Press: the printing press was an invention that is responsible for so much change in the world. Mainly, the printing press allowed knowledge to be passed. It started off with printing things such as the Bible, allowing the common person to read it for themselves (helping the Reformation) to also printing scientific journals among other things (helping scientist share and improve on ideas in the scientific revolution).

2.Calculus: was a study of math invented by Newton. It gives us many more advances in different things that the scientific world could not do without calculus, such as physics.

3.Gravity: was another thing that Newton found laws to. His basic 3 laws of gravity are widely accepted and taught everywhere. This too helped in other subjects of science such as physics.

4.Telescope: the telescope was invented by Galileo, and it greatly helped us get a deeper understanding for our universe and things that we hadn’t cared about knowing before.

5.Pendulum clock: The pendulum clock is a great example of innovativeness in Europe. Invented by Christiaan Huygens, it helped Europe advance as a place where people can think outside of the box. 6.Galleys: was a warship that proved to be very effective. Ships and other sea going vessels had been around for quite some time, but with the advancement of modern technologies, the galleys could now be crafted in such a way to cut through water more efficiently, and stay afloat under heavier damage.

7.Astrolabes: these were another invention that helped mariners establish where they were at in the middle of the ocean as well as where the land was at that they needed to get to, by taking into consideration the moon, sun, and star’s position.

8.Modern maps: many maps were improved upon due to exploration and new discoveries. The new maps helped explorers and other navigators.

9.Russia’s Army: Russia had a formidable army due to its new technologies. They used many new war strategies as well as state of the art equipment to be the deadliest army in Europe for quite some time. Peter the Great grew such a powerful army by visiting other nations and seeing what he would want in his super army.

10.Improved art forms: During the Renaissance, many artists started to use new forms of painting. They painted things much more lifelike and three dimensional. This gave them the ability to paint portraits of kings and queens that would have been as good as taking a photograph with a modern camera. 11.Constitutional Monarchy: This is an idea that came after the English Civil War. It gave the people more power in government, and is ultimately the stepping stones towards democratically elected governments, like we have in many places today.

12.New Model Army: This army came out of the English Civil War. What made the New Model Army unique was that it didn’t consist of part time militia fighters, the men who served were full time soldiers. This was an entirely new idea, but one that proved to be effective in battle.

13.Lassaiz-Faire Economics: This idea came out of the enlightenment time period from an economist named Adam Smith. He wrote a book about how economies are far better off when governments keep their hands off and do not try to regulate them. His economic views are still widely used in economics today.

14.The Invisible Hand: This is another economic theory. It says that when the market gets out of shape, an invisible hand will auto corrects the market, and bring it back to equilibrium in the long run. Again, this economic theory is still used by the top economists in the world today.

15.Copernicus’s Heliocentric Theory: This is another theory that was established. It says that the Earth is not the center of our solar system, but rather the Sun is. In its time, everyone thought that the Earth was stationary and the sun and moon revolved around it. After Copernicus, we discover that that is not true. Inventions Part II Inventions Part III THE END
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