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Africa's Road to Independence

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by

Caitlin Flanagan

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Africa's Road to Independence

Africa's Road to Independence The First Movements The Negritude Movement: French-speaking Africans and West Indians took pride in their culture and heritage.
World War II: Africans fought with European nations to "defend freedom."
Europeans began to question cost & morality of colonies African nations had to create a government and develop an economy
Struggled to settle ethnic differences
Separated groups & put enemies together
Led to instability and violence Problems: Called Gold Coast; became Ghana to honor West African kingdom
First colony to gain independence from British
British gave them limited self-rule after WWII
Movement led by Kwame Nkrumah
organized strikes and boycotts
very successful
became first prime minister
industrialized the country, but cost it too much money
Ghana went back and forth between military and civilian rule
2000: Ghana held first open elections GHANA: 1957 Controlled by the British
Rise of the secret group Mau Mau (native Kenya farmers)
Tried to drive British farmers out
Led to 10,000 Africans and 100 British killed
Movement led by Jomo Kenyatta
later became President
tried to unite all ethnic groups in Kenya
2002: first free elections KENYA: 1963 Direct Control: Hard to gain freedom
Indirect Control: Easier transition to freedom

WHY? Motivating Factors: Unwilling to return to European rule after World War II
Sense of pride in their culture
Wanted European settlers to surrender power to them ALGERIA: 1962 Controlled by France
1954: Algerian National Liberation Front fought French for independence
Algeria defeated half a million French troops
Ahmed Ben Bella became first president
overthrown in 1965
political unrest until 1988
1990: Islamic Salvation Front won election
still problems today between them and the military Congo: Angola: Belgium controlled the Congo until 1960
An army officer ran the country and renamed it Zaire until 1997
Renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo
2006: civil wars ended and president Kabila took control Controlled by the Portuguese
Liberation movement caused civil war for years
Outside supporters on both sides
2002: finally ended the civil wars
Full transcript