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Properties of Lipids :)

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on 12 June 2015

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Transcript of Properties of Lipids :)

A lipid is an organic compound, its a fatty acid or derive from a fatty acid, they are insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents.
They include many natural oils, waxes, triacylglycerols (fats and oils), Phospholipids and steroids. Fatty acids are usually part of waxes, triacylglycerols, or phospholipids
Testing for Solubility
If you test a substance in Water and it dissolves, it is most likely not a lipid because lipids are not water soluble. Soluble means it is able to dissolve in water or another substance. (lipids will not dissolve in water, but will dissolve in other organic substances)
Testing for Unsaturating
Lipids are classified as saturated or unsaturated by weather or not they have carbon-carbon double bonds. Unsaturated fats are usually healthier for you than saturated fats that are holding as much moisture as possible.
What is a Lipid?
In this lab
First you will test the Solubility of Albumin, Cholesterol, corn oil, olive oil, and Coconut oil.
You will test it in water, Sudan III solution and Hexanes.
Procedure

1. Use the peanuts to perform the extraction on.
2. Weigh about 5-6 grams of peanuts to be tested.
3. Grind the peanuts to be tested in a mortar and pestle for 3-4 minutes to obtain a finely divided powder.
4. Tare a 125 mL flask and transfer about 3 grams of the peanut into the flask. Record the exact mass of the
peanuts being used.

Materials
For the solubility lab you will need:

- Olive oil
- Corn oil
- Coconut oil
- Albumin
- Cholesterol
- Hexanes
- Sudan III solution
Procedure
Mass of peanuts used: 5.9 g
Background
Lab 1
Solubility and saturation for peanuts
Solubility
Properties of Lipids :)
Keep in mind there are three parts to this lab.
Part 2: Solubility
Part 3: Saturation
Part 1: Solubility and Saturation in food (peanuts)
In this lab you will determine and test the Solubility, and Saturation of different Lipids to determine the different properties lipids have.
objective:
Procedure (continued 1)
5. Pour approximately 20 mL of hexane in the flask. Swirl the flask around for 15 minutes to mix the contents.
6. While extraction is occurring, set up a filter funnel for filtration. Measure and record the mass of
the filter paper.
Figure 5: Filter paper apparatus.
7. After 15 minutes, pour the contents of the flask into the funnel.
use a spatula to transfer any remaining solid.
Procedure (continued 2)
8. When the filtration is complete, carefully remove the filter paper and place it on a watch glass. Place the watch glass
on a piece of paper and leave it to dry overnight.
9. Save the liquid portion of the filtration in a stoppered flask.
10. After the residue is dry, record its mass.
11. Perform the solubility tests, reaction with bromine and sudan III solution on the residue. Record your results.
Intro

Lipids are a natural substance that are grouped together based on their insolubility in water (a polar solvent) and solubility in a non polar solvent. Lipid include many different substances, and are divided into different classes based on their structures.
Materials for part 1:
peanuts
hexanes
mortar
pestle
filtration paper
funnel
125 mL flask
spatula
watch glass
Sudan III solution
bromine
1. put a pinch/ small amount of Albumin, Cholesterol, corn oil, olive oil, and Coconut oil. Each substance goes in three test tubes. (you need three sets of 5 test tubes for the different tests)
2. Add 40 drops of water to the first set of test tubes. (test each substance with water once) Mix for 15 seconds. Record your results
3. Add 40 drops of hexanes to each test tube in one set. Mix for 15 seconds, record results
4. Add a couple of drops on Sudan III solution to the last set of test tubes. Then record your results.
Results
Water added:

Substance floated to top
Hexanes added:
all of the substances settled at the bottom
Post Lab questions:

What does it mean if the substance broke down into the reactants?
Results
Solubility
What substances are lipids? How do you know?
Saturation
In this part of the lab
In this part of the lab you will test the substances with bromine water to test for Unsaturation
Reacting with water
: The water stayed on the top

Reacting with Hexanes
: the water and the peanut oil dissolved

Reacting with Sudan III solution
: the Peanut oil stayed on the bottom.
Sudan III Solution:
Coconut oil stayed at the bottom. Albumin stayed dry. Olive oil and corn oil stayed at the bottom. Cholesterol clumped together.
Testing for unsaturation
Procedure:

1. In a test tube put the peanut oil, that you extracted and let sit overnight.
2. Put 2 ML or about 40 drops of bromine water in the test tube with the peanut oil.
3. leave for 1 to 3 minutes. Record initial and final results
Results with Bromine Water

The peanut oil initially:
A clear yellow tinted color.
Three minutes after adding Bromine:
It dissolved with the bromine water and now you cannot tell a difference between the bromine of the oil.
Learning Lipids:
Post Lab Questions
Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells. Lipids are insoluble in water. This means that they will stay intact, even if you’re attempting to drown them. They are soluble in organic solvents, however, and that’s because lipids are created from similar elements in carbohydrates. Lipids are involved in the processes of how the human body stores energy. Because it maintains the structural integrity of cells, these tiny helpers are able to adjust the biological processes of the body and maintain its overall balance.
Was the peanut oil unsaturated? How do you know?
How do you know that peanuts are lipids?
Yes the peanut oil was unsaturated. I know this because the color of the bromine water disappeared and mixed with the peanut oil. If the peanut oil was saturated then the bromine water would not have dissolved with the peanut oil and because it dissolved, you know it is unsaturated. Which means that peanuts have carbon-carbon bonds.
Peanuts are lipids because when you add water to them like we did in the first part of the experiment, the water and the peanut oil that we extracted from the peanuts stayed separated and did not dissolve, but they did mix with other organic substances, which lipids are supposed to do.
That the substance is soluble
All of the substances we tested are lipids. I know this because they were not soluble with water.
Materials

- Olive oil
- Corn oil
- Coconut oil
- Bromine water
Procedure:

1. Put, Olive oil, Corn oil, and the coconut oil each in a test tube

2. Add 5-10 drops of Bromine water in each test tube. Then record your results from 1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes.
Results
Initial appearance of substances after adding bromine water:
Each substance had a lower dark orange layer and an upper yellow layer.
After 3 Minutes :
Coconut oil had not changed and the bromine water stayed the same color in the coconut oil.
Olive oil and corn oil both had a significant change, the bromine water color disappeared. Lower layer was clear and colorless, top layer was cloudy and white.
Post lab Question:
What substances that you tested were unsaturated (had Carbon=Carbon bonds) and how do you know?
The corn oil and the olive oil have carbon double bonds. This is true because in this experiment when we tested the three different oils with bromine water, Corn oil and Olive oil were the only substances that the bromine water dissolved with, and the original color of the bromine water disappeared.
What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated substance?
Unsaturated fats have a double carbon bond, and are also known to be healthier and more beneficial to the human body than saturated fats which are a single bond and are know for hurting cholesterol levels and your heart. Saturated fats are usually found in more processed foods while unsaturated fats are found in more organic products therefore healthier.
Review questions for the class
1. What is one easy way to determine if something is a lipid or not? (Hint: it is also a property of a lipid)
2. What does it mean for a lipid to be Unsaturated? and is it healthier to consume saturated or unsaturated fats?
3. What does it mean for a substance to be soluble?
Vocabulary to know

lipids
: Organic compounds including fats, oils, and cholesterol.
soluble
: Capable of being dissolved
saturated
: containing the maximum amount of solute capable of being dissolved under given conditions.
unsaturated
: not saturated; having the power to dissolve still more of a substance.
Triacylglycerols
: A naturally occurring ester of three fatty acids and glycerol that is the chief constituent of fats and oils. Also called triglyceride.
Phospholipds
: Phospholipids are similar in structure to triacylglycerols but replace one fatty acid group with a phosphate group and
an amino alcohol
Connection to Lab:
Final Conclusion
In this lab we determined and tested the solubility of different substances. The substances used are known as lipids, cholesterol, olive oil, corn oil, albumin, and coconut oil. To test The lipids we used hexanes, water, sudan III, and bromine. In the lab the material bromine dried out before it was put into use. Water was used and mixed with the small remaining bromine, but it was not enough and the observations taken during the lab were false. Something learned it the lab is how to determine the solubility of a lipid and how to determine whether or not the lipid is saturated or unsaturated. By taking observations and using previous research on the topis we were able to discover these things. During the lab we also learned how to extract a lipid from a solid. Using peanuts and hexane's, we extracted an oil from the peanuts given. we used the extracted lipid in the solubility tests and saturation tests. Something in the lab that could create incorrect observations is inaccurate measurements. Overall, in the lab we were able to gain knowledge on the topic of lipids and how they work.
The topic of lipids is connected to this lab, because in the lab Lipids such as cholesterol, olive oil, corn oil, coconut oil, and albumin are tested and used. Their solubility is determined and whether or not they are saturated or unsaturated.
Future expectations:
Our expectations for the lab are to learn more about the functions of lipids, what they are used for and how to determine their solubility, and to overall just gain knowledge on the topic.
Prior knowledge:
Lipids are fatty acids
Lipids are insoluble in water
Examples of lipids: oils
lipids can be extracted from peanuts
How to create a lab
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