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Slaves and the American Civil War

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Joshua Bergen

on 4 November 2013

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Transcript of Slaves and the American Civil War

Slaves and the American Civil War
Slaves in the Army: From Victims to Soldiers
Negroes were given permission to fight after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued
Negroes started by working on service units and were paid much less than the white soldiers
The first African American units were National Guards formed in New Orleans
The 54th Massachusetts unit was the first African American unit to fight in battle on July 18, 1863
180,000 Black men served and 40,000 died
Emancipation Proclamation
Written by Abraham Lincoln
Paved the way for African Americans to fight for their freedom
Lincoln's advisors were originally against it
Conclusion
Slaves could only fight in the Civil War after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued on Jan. 1 , 1863
Abraham Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation with his advisors being against it
Civil war ended in 1865
General butler declared escaped slaves as Contraband of war which renders fugitive slave act ineffective
13Th amendment which abolished slavery was passed January 31, 1865 and ratified by America December 6Th 1865
Intro; Slaves in the Civil War
Didn't expect so many slaves to escape and emerge
Even though he was against slavery, had to think about the effects on the rest of the country
He didn't think free slaves would stick around; gov't could give them funds to start off their own colony
Slaves in the Union
Slaves in the Confederacy
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation issued on Sept. 22, 1862
Stated that slaves in Rebel States and anywhere in the U.S. were free on Jan. 1, 1863
Beginning of Emancipation
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on January 1, 1863, freeing all slaves in the United States
A major stepping stone towards the abolishment of slavery three years later
The Freedom of the Slaves
Contraband of the War
Contraband was used to describe certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces
Under the fugitive slave act slaves had to be returned to their owners
General Butler declared escaped slaves as "Contraband of War"
This encourages thousands of slaves to cross to union side with assurance they will not be returned to their masters
Becoming a 'Contraband" did not mean full freedom many slaves saw it as a step in that direction
It all started when...
Abraham Lincoln - elected president of the U.S., year 1860
Abe's government tries abolishing slavery
North vs South
Northern Christians saw slavery as "evil"
Northerners relied on industries and factories; no effect on economy
Southerners devastated, needed slave work for their economy; indigo, tobacco, rice and cotton plantations
Civil war; North to free slaves vs south to keep slaves
Lincoln's goal; not to abolish slavery, but to prevent its spread
~Lincoln's views~
~Citizens' views~
~Union Army's views~
~Slaves' views~
Weren't very good at dealing with immense number of slaves
Not okay with sacrificing just for slaves rights
Since they were the ones fighting, thought they were above slaves
Most Northerners against slavery but didn't consider them equals
Generally not in favor of giving up $ for blacks
Still got food & shelter, but quality of life similar/worse
No new jobs; same tasks as south
No $ from the gov't; couldn't separate from white colonies
Main concern; raising & equipping an army to fight
Union army; 6 million vs Confederate army; 2 million
Used slaves for essential chores (cooking, cleaning, etc), more room to use white men as soldiers
Backfired; slaves escaped, leaked intel to Union army
Southerners needed to win to keep their lifestyle
Industry/Factory workers join army; ditch work
Shortage of workers; slaves fill in. The work is way more grueling than before.
Final days of war; desperate in numbers, call on slaves to fight. However, the south loses
Soldiers in the War
The Aftermath
Shortage of food supply; slaves were first to get hit, cause starvation everywhere
Changes; slaves began rebelling, worked slower & disobeyed orders
Abolishment of Slavery
Civil war ended in 1865
Northern forces defeat the southern states confederacy
13th amendment which abolished slavery passed January 31, 1865
Ratified by the United states of America on December 6 1865
Full transcript