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History of Abnormal Psychology
Transcript of History of Abnormal Psychology
religious shrines were devoted to the humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders.
Gheel was the forerunner of today’s community mental health programs, The Timeline of Abnormal Psychology Ancient Views
and Treatment probably regarded abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits
trephination, in which a stone instrument, or trephine, was used to cut away a circular section of the skull Ancient Egyptian, Chinese, and Hebrew writings all account for psychological deviance this way
The treatment for abnormality in these early societies was often exorcism 500 B.C. to 500 A.D. Hippocrates (460–377 B.C.) saw abnormal behavior as a disease arising from internal physical problems.
Hippocrates’ focus on internal causes for abnormal behavior was shared by the great Greek philosophers Plato (427–347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) and by influential Greek and Roman physicians. Europe in the Middle Ages:
Demonology Returns Once again behavior was interpreted as a conflict between good and evil, God and the devil. The Middle Ages were a time of great stress and anxiety—of war, urban uprisings, and plagues.
Abnormal behavior apparently increased greatly during this period The Middle Ages saw outbreaks of mass madness
tarantism, groups of people would suddenly start to jump, dance, and go into convulsions
lycanthropy, people thought they were possessed by wolves or other animals. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, medical view of abnormality gained favor once again.
During these same years, many people with psychological disturbances received treatment in medical hospitals, such as the Trinity Hospital in England The Renaissance Demonology out, scientific activity in.
Johann Weyer (1515–1588), the first physician to specialize in mental illness, believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body was. considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology the best known of these shrines was at Gheel in Belgium Unfortunately, improvements in care began to fade by the mid-sixteenth century.
the rise of the asylums
The first asylum had been founded in Muslim Spain in the early fifteenth century
In 1547, Bethlehem Hospital was given to the city of London by Henry VIII institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness Once the asylums started to overflow, however, they became virtual prisons where patients were PP The Rake’s Progress, William Hogarth depicted London’s Bethlehem Hospital, or Bedlam, as a chaotic asylum where people of fashion came to marvel at the strange behavior of the inmates. La Bicêtre Is the first site of asylum reform. Philippe Pinel patients were sick people whose illnesses should be treated with sympathy and kindness rather than chains and beatings Pinel’s approach proved remarkably successful William Tuke (1732–1819) was bringing similar reforms to northern Europe 1796 he founded the York Retreat, a rural estate where about 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses and were treated with a combination of rest, talk, prayer, and manual work. the moral treatment movement As 1800 approached, the treatment of people with mental disorders began to improve once again. Dorothea Dix Dix’s lobbying efforts led to the passage of laws and appropriations to fund the cleanup of mental hospitals and the training of mental health professionals dedicated to the moral treatment of patients based on the psychological view that people developed problems because they had become separated from nature and succumbed to the stresses imposed by the rapid social changes of the period. The treatment was rest and relaxation in a serene and physically appealing place. The 20th Century Somatogenic Perspective Emil Kraepelin argued that physical factors, such as fatigue, are responsible for mental dysfunction
constructed the first modern system for classifying abnormal behavior. One of the most important discoveries was that an organic disease, syphilis, led to general paresis, an irreversible disorder with both physical and mental symptoms, including paralysis and delusions of grandeur. German neurologist, injected matter from syphilis sores into patients suffering from general paresis and found that none of the patients developed symptoms of syphilis. Richard von Krafft-Ebing biological approaches yielded mostly disappointing results throughout the first half of the twentieth century
most of the techniques failed to work.
tooth extraction, tonsillectomy, hydrotherapy, and lobotomy, a surgical cutting of certain nerve fibers in the brain. eugenic sterilization- the elimination (through medical or other means) of individuals’ ability to reproduce Not until the 1950s, when a number of effective medications were finally discovered, did the somatogenic perspective truly begin to pay off for patients. The Psychogenic Perspective Galen (c. 129–c. 200) believed that many mental disorders are caused by fear, disappointment in love, and other psychological events. Hypnotism became popular Hypnotism is a procedure that places people in a trancelike mental state during which they become extremely suggestible Friedrich Anton Mesmer (1734–1815) used hypnosis to help treat psychological disorders
hysterical disorders, mysterious bodily ailments that had no apparent physical basis. Hippolyte-Marie Bernheim and
Ambroise-Auguste Liébault showed that hypnosis can be used to induce hysterical disorders to normal people established that a mental process—hypnotic suggestion—could both cause and cure even a physical dysfunction Leading scientists concluded that hysterical disorders were largely psychological in origin, and the psychogenic perspective rose in popularity. The Birth of Psychoanalysis discovered that his patients sometimes awoke free of hysterical symptoms after speaking candidly under hypnosis about past upsetting events. Josef Breuer Around 1890's Freud joined Breuer The works of Freud led him to create the theory of psychoanalysis holds that many forms of abnormal and normal psychological functioning are psychogenic
believed that unconscious psychological processes are at the root of such functioning.
a form of discussion in which clinicians help troubled people gain insight into their unconscious psychological processes.
applied the psychoanalytic treatment approach primarily to patients suffering from anxiety or depression, problems that did not typically require hospitalization. The psychoanalytic approach had little effect on the treatment of severely disturbed patients in mental hospitals, however. psycho- analysis often takes years to be effective, and the overcrowded and understaffed public mental hospitals could not accommodate such a leisurely pace. From the Ancient Times to the 20th Century Answer the Following: 1. Deﬁne the biological, supernatural, and psychological perspectives on abnormality.
2. What is trephination?
3. How did Greek and Roman philosophers and physicians view abnormality?
4. How did the belief in Demonology of the late Middle Ages reﬂect the views of abnormality in those times?
5. What is moral treatment?