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Social Learning Theory

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Julie Thounskane

on 15 July 2015

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Transcript of Social Learning Theory

The Big Ideas
Roles of Individuals
Observational Learning
The idea that people can learn through observation.

Intrinsic Reinforcement
The notion that internal mental states are an essential part of this process.

The Model Process
Learning does not necessarily lead to a changed behavior.

Basic Social Learning Concepts:
There are three core concepts.
John Dewey
Albert Bandura
Learners Who Benefit

Facilitator, Encouraging, Flexible Supervisor, Co-participant

Requires high level of interpersonal and instructional skill

Responsive to student needs/Student centered
Peers/role models are primary part of the process of knowledge construction
Participation is of primary importance

Cooperation with peers in a democratic learning environment is necessary

Social learning is happening all around us.

& Applications

Why students engage
Students need 3 things to be successful:

1. Goal setting

2. Self-efficacy

3. Self-regulation

Goals reflect cognitive representations of anticipated, desired, or preferred outcomes.

Students need to see that learning leads to personally valued or important outcomes.

Everyone can learn in a Social Learning Environment.

Whether this learning occurs via observation, imitation or modeling and regardless of whether or not the behavior learned is a behavior we ever wanted them to learn.

Students with varying disabilities may struggle more than others in social learning environments. However, Social Learning provides all individuals an opportunity to learn.

People learn by observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors.

Modeling Process
1. Attention

2. Retention

3. Reproduction

4. Motivation
Note: Sheldon is a socially awkward personality who does not like physical interaction with others.
As mentioned before, social learning theory focuses on observing others' behaviors, attitudes, and outcomes of the specific behaviors.

It is a continuous reciprocal interaction between behavioral and environmental influences.

Note that each learned behavior does not always result in changed behavior.
Focus on the behavior of the model
Re-enacting the behavior
Reward or punishment
Ability to store information of the behavior
Social Learning Theory spans both the cognitive and behavioral frameworks.

Students need attention, memory and motivation to learn.

SLT fosters self efficacy(reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment.)

Challenges students to maintain confidence in their abilities and to rise to challenges.
Teaching in small heterogeneous (different abilities) and homogenous (similar abilities) groupings.
Utilize group work for students.
Opportunities to earn rewards- daily, weekly or monthly.
Create an encouraging atmosphere. Praise students for participation.
Provide strong moral examples for students in speech and actions.

What it looks like in the classroom
The Nitty Gritty of Social Learning
Bandura's Thoughts
“Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling; from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors and performed, and on later occasions this encoded information serves as a guide for action.” (Bandura)

In short...
Self-efficacy has emerged as a prominent influence on Social Learning Theory.

Self-efficacy reflects the individual's beliefs about weather they can achieve a given level of success in a particular task.
1. Self-observation- students’ ability to monitor and keep track of their own behaviors and outcomes.
- Journal writing, checklists, and time for self-reflection helps develop these skills

2. Self-judgment- students evaluate whether their actions are effective and help them make progress towards their goals.
- Model supporting students’ own efforts, help students to see the value in the standards to encourage their self-judgments.

3. Self-reaction- students respond to evaluation they have made by modifying their behavior.
Self-efficacy is a product of a student’s past performance, verbal persuasion of others, and individual’s on-going psychological state.

Interventions in Social Learning Theory should increase self-efficacy in school-aged children.

Students will be more active, effortful, and effective learners when they are confidently in their abilities.

* motivation is intrinsic
Monkey See, Monkey Do!

T.V. commercials:
People will buy or use a certain product to make us popular and win the admiration of others.

Students are being asked to learn in a social manner, and their individuality may not be completely be integrated into the curriculum
The student’s emotions and their personal motivation to learning is not being addressed.

In the Classroom
Strengths & Weaknesses
Social Learning Theory
In the Classroom
More focused toward Common Core Standards.

Students are being asked to work in collaborative learning groups.

Students are learning through observations and sensory experiences

Students are given the opportunity to imitate others through social learning.

With Common Core and Social Learning Theory students are given the opportunities to observe experts in action.

- Easily handles inconsistencies in behavior

Any inconsistencies in behavior can be explained by taking into account the model the child was observing (was the model being positive or negative in their interactions and behavior)

- Accurate picture explaining how behavior is learned.

Gives a good definition and idea as to how children learn behavior through observation, which is the basis for Bandura’s Social Learning Theory.
- Offers a way to integrate Social and Cognitive theories

Uses other theories as a building block for its ideas

- Allow and accounts for cognitive processes

This again is talking about how children observe models, process the behavior, and then imitate that same behavior waiting to discover how the adults around them will react.
- Helps explain a large number of behaviors

- Accurate and easy to understand

This particular theory is well explained based on the knowledge they have from the research that has already been completed.
- This theory is concerned with important human social behaviors.

This theory seeks to explain why human beings act the way they do based on the given circumstances and or because of what they have observed throughout their lifetime

- Social Learning Theory is still an evolving theory that is open to change

Pending more research, this theory is still changing and refining each different part
- This theory is also focused on important theoretical issues, (e.g. role of reward in learning, the stability of behavior)

- Social Learning Theory has a reasonable view of people and concern with the social implications of the theory

We all have expectations of how people should behave and act in social situations, however, this theory looks at both the negative and positive behavior.
- Critics have stated that the Social Learning Theory places too heavy of an emphasis on what happens instead of what the observer does with what happens.

This is talking about the fact that the Social Learning Theory heavily focuses on the actions of the model instead of placing more of an emphasis on what the child does after observing the model.

- The Social Learning Theory does not take into account the physical and mental changes that occur over a child's lifetime. It simply focuses on the young children and what they see at the beginning, not what they see as they grow up as well.

- It also does not explain all behavior. However, it is hard for any theory to define all behavior, because some people just have irrational behavior.

- It does not take into account that what one person views as punishment, another person may view as a reward.

This is true. Not everyone looks at rewards and punishment the same way. That is a not something that is universal.
- The Social Cognitive Learning theory is not a fully systematized, unified theory, and is loosely organized according to some critics

- This theory also has some controversial issues that follow it. According to Bandura, self-efficacy is our own estimate of how competent we feel we are likely to be in a particular environment. This self-assessment influences how effective we are in interacting with others and our environment.

o Is reinforcement necessary for both learning and performance?
o Is self – efficacy just another outcome expectancy?
o Why are some self – efficacy expectancies stable and others susceptible to rapid change?
o If self – efficacy expectations are situation specific, how do they relate to broader personality?
o Why are some self –efficacy beliefs apparently unrelated to behavior (e.g. stopping smoking).
o Relies on self – reports excessively
- There are also neglected areas that still need to have research done in order to better organize the Social Learning Theory.

Maturation and changes over the lifespan ignored
Minimal attention to motivation, conflict, and emotion

- The research findings for the Social Cognitive Learning Theory are Preliminary. There are still some questions that need to be answered.

Are cognitive processes the basic concepts of personality?
Are modeling and guided participation able to handle many psychological problems?
Growth Mindset
The Social Learning Theory lends itself to the Growth Mind Set. It allows us to realize that there is still a lot to be researched, as well as realizing that children much more learning to do throughout their lifetime

This theory allows us to model for children that they are lifelong learners and that they can accomplish anything that they put their mind to. It would be beneficial for the Growth Mindset to surround a child with positive, highly motivated people in order to foster the Growth of their mind.

Social Learning Theory requires learners to be active participants in their learning experience.

The very act of Social Learning requires student so be proactive about their learning. When in a social learning environment, students Growth Mindset flourishes.

Students are responsible for their own learning and therefore take the initiative to work together, excel, and learn as autonomous individuals.

Cooperative Learning Model
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