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Southeast Asia Higher Education
Transcript of Southeast Asia Higher Education
H.E. History of Universities Curriculum, Research and Student Access University of Santo Tomás (1611) Organizational Structure Finance Policy Making & Accountability and Quality Assurance Globalization and Internationalization During the 1980s, the Southeast Asian governments adopted a Neo-liberalism approach to financing higher education. This approach seeks to increase corporate earnings and economic efficiency by privatizing public institutions, reducing state regulation and taxation, and rolling back the “costly” welfare state (Carl, 1994). Within this region, both the Philippines and Indonesia have the longest running higher education private sectors. The 1997 Asian economic crisis lead to major budget cuts in higher education in this region. Both the IMF and the World Bank would not allocate loans until higher education budgets were cut. This forced many countries in this region to rethink higher education funding strategies. Most public institutions in this region have taken on the entrepreneurial spirit in all operations to keep up with globalization. ________ has 85% of its tertiary enrollment in the private sector –- the highest in the world.
D. The Philippines List of organizations associated with Southeast Asia's Policy Making:
Asian Development Bank
UNESCO- United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
MOE- Ministry of Education
MOHE- Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia
CHED- Commision of Higher Education in the Phillippines
SEAMEO- Southeast Asia Ministers of Education
SEAMEO RIHED-Regional Center for Higher Education and Development
ASEAN- Association of Southeast Asian Nations Decentralization in the United State: autonomy given to each of the 50 states to structure their educational systems.
Southeast Asia not only has country ministries to maintain national educational structure but also, SEAMEO which creates regional education stanards.
Department of Education's and Federal Government's limited role in higher education in the United States versus the mandated policies of the Ministries of Education and the funding organizations (World Bank) in the Southeast Asian region. Accountability and Quality Assurance:
"Quality Manifests Excellence"...said to be Malaysia's Ministry of Higher Education's farsighted vision.
QA is a trend mandated by government authorities globally. In Southeast Asia World Bank and ASEAN (promoted the development of QA agencies. Interrelation of QA between the United States and Southeast Asia; involved organizations include:
INQAAHE (Int'l Network of Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education) - members include the USA, as well as, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam and Indonesia.
CQAIE (Center for Quality Assurance in International Education) - activity from Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam.
Accreditation is also used, both in the US and Southeast Asia to evaluate and regulate quality assurance. Southeast Asia attempts autonomy through proven Quality Assurance.
Benchmarks: Striving to be rated with in Top 100 Internationally, gaining insight of global best practices,
QA differences within the region: Independently created versus mandated government creations. Southeastern Asia
Consist of 11 countries
Vast developmental diversity
Similarities and differences The Beginning
Their higher educational systems were adopted from their colonizers
Thailand was the only country that avoided colonial rule Areas of Concern
Access to the masses
Under qualified staff
Thus poor quality students International Monetary Fund (2012) National Association of College and University Business Officers (2013) World Bank (2009) 5.4% 3.2% 4.1% 3.3% INTERNATIONALIZATION AND GLOBALIZATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
Internationalization is defined as increase of border-crossing activities amidst national systems of higher education.
Globalization is defined as the blurring or disappearance of borders and national systems associated with competition and market-steering, transnational education, and commercial knowledge-transfer affecting differently due to:
- priorities HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGES:
- rapid expansion of student enrollment
- knowledge explosion
- information and communication technology expansion
- economic restructuring
- financial constraints
-In 2005 UNESCO Bangkok and SEAMEO RIHED jointly conducted a study called “A Situational Analysis of Higher Education Reforms in South-East Asian Countries” to support educational development in the region including cooperation and development. SOUTH EAST ASIAN HIGHER EDUCATION COMMUNITY:
- Closer cooperation is necessary and beneficial to produce highly qualified graduates
- that contribute to sustainable development
- increase world competitiveness.
- Cooperation is necessary so policy makers and practitioners:
- convert information into national need policies and practices
- maneuver higher ed reform against a national, regional and global backdrop in funding, resources, governance and curriculum development.
- Capitalize on growth of transnational education and cross-border exchange.
** Transnational education is any teaching or learning activity where the students are in a different country (the host country) from the home country of the institution providing the education. TRANSNATIONAL Continued……
Importers of transnational education:
- Malaysia, Thailand and Viet Nam from Australia and UK
Exporters of transnational education:
- Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore provide educational services to students from neighbor countries and also set up institutions across borders to become educational hubs in the region. INTERNATIONALIZATION
- Royal University of Phnom Penh, (largest and oldest) has academic partnerships/cooperation with 29 foreign universities and 40 international organizations
- Education abroad is choice for well-off families with 100,000 students studying abroad each year including 17K+ studying in Australian universities alone
- NUOL has signed Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) with more than 30 institutions over 5 year period FUTURE DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA
- Transnational growth will continue
- Promotion of multiculturalism and universal values in a global society
- Effectively adapting to changing societal needs
- Continuing search for new/different sources of funding