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Transcript of Neuron
Bailey, Kaila, Meghan Dendrites Structure: Soma (Cell Body) Structure: Structure: Function Neurons~ specialized cells that process information
4 functional cells:
most neurons have the " dendrite tree" which the receiving dendrites branch out from the cell body
Length: 4 to 100 microns (0.0002 to 0.00039 inches) Function: Receive Messages Function: Makes protein and energy
to run the cell Axon Function: Sends messages Structure: Myelin Sheath Function: Insulates axon, speeding up transmission of messages Structure: Axon Terminal Buttons Function: Send messages on to other neurons Structure: Nucleus Function: Contains DNA, controls all cell activities Action Potential A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
1) Resting potential- inside has negatively charged ions and outside has positively charged ions
2) Axon opens it's gates and positively charged ions rush in, making the neuron depolarized.
3) During the refractory period, resting pause, the neuron pumps positive ions outside the cell.
4) Then the neuron can fire again. Threshold In order to trigger a neural impulse, excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals must exceed a certain intensity, called the threshold.
Increasing a stimulus above this level will not increase the nerve impulse's intensity. This phenomenon is called an all-or-none response.
The strength of the stimulus does not affect the speed of an action potential. Neuron Communication: 1) An action potential reaches an axon terminal
2) Neurotransmitters are released
3) Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron
4) Ion are allowed to enter the receiving neuron, and they either excite or inhibit a new action potential
5) Excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron in a process called reuptake