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How does the amount of milk affect the height of bread?

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by

Lilli Yuppy

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of How does the amount of milk affect the height of bread?

How does the amount of milk affect the height of bread?
Materials
Flour
Milk
Baking powder
Salt
Sugar
Crisco Shortening
12-Cup Muffin Pan
Mixing bowl
Electric mixer
Oven
Timer
Measuring cup
Measuring instruments for teaspoon and tablespoon
Ruler
Recipe
Ingredients
Conclusion
How does baking powder work?
How does the amount of milk affect the height of bread?
Baking powder is a substance used in
cooking and baking that enables the
bread to rise. Unlike yeast, it is not a
living thing, which gives it the ability to
be controlled. It additionally causes the
bread to rise immediately, as opposed to
gradually increasing in height over a longer
period of time. This is the result of its chemical
makeup--baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, and dry acid, sodium aluminum
sulfate. When these two components are exposed to a liquid ingredient, such as water, milk, or eggs, they undergo a reaction that create carbon dioxide gas.
3 NaHCO3 + NaAl(SO4)2 → Al(OH)3 + 2 Na2SO4 + 3 CO2

or

3 Sodium Bicarbondate + Sodium Aluminum Sulfate
yields
Aluminum Hydroxide + 2 Sodium Sodium Sulfate + 3 Carbon Dioxide
Chemical formula of sodium bicarbonate and sodium aluminum sufate
1 cup of flour
3/8 cup of milk
1/4 teaspoon of salt
1/8 teaspoon of sugar
1/4 tablespoon of melted shortening
1 1/2 tablespoons of baking powder
Instructions
1. Put the flour, salt, sugar, melted shortening, and baking powder in a bowl and blend it thoroughly with an electric mixer
2. Slowly add the milk (if any) and continue mixing until the dough is stiff
3. Pour the mixture in three molds of the muffin pan
4. Bake the bread in the oven at 350°F or approximately 177°C for 55 minutes.
With the information we gathered, we decided to test the effect of the amount of milk on the outcome of the bread’s height. If there was more milk, would more carbon dioxide be released and increase the height of the bread, or would the possible heights be limited due to the amount of baking powder?

Hypothesis
We predict that as the amount of milk increases, the height of the bread will increase.
Observations
0 Cups of Milk
It was very powdery. The inside was surprisingly hard, despite it being easy to cut.
A
2.6 centimeters
Height:
B
2.8 centimeters
Height:
C
2.5 centimeters
Height:
1/4 Cups of Milk
The outside of each piece of bread was hard, making it difficult to cut. However, the inside was soft, but firm.
A
3.6 centimeters
Height:
B
3.7 centimeters
Height:
C
3.9 centimeters
Height:
1/2 Cups of Milk
It was quite crunchy and hard on the outside. On the inside, however, it was very soft and a little firm, making it decent to cut.
A
6.6 centimeters
Height:
B
6.3 centimeters
Height:
C
6.2 centimeters
Height:
3/4 Cups of Milk
Each piece of bread had a shiny and smooth texture. The bottom of the bread, which was the part that was shaped by the muffin mold, felt rubbery with several small holes scattered across the base and sides. The top was squishy, speckled with a plethora
of holes. The knife easily glided through
the bread since the inside was soft
and contained plenty of pores
and gas pockets.
A
6.5 centimeters
Height:
B
5.8 centimeters
Height:
C
5.9 centimeters
Height:
1 Cup of Milk
Similar to the previous group, the bottom part of each piece of bread was rubbery and smooth. On the top however, it was quite lopsided there are several small holes. Although the top surfaces of each portion was soft and airy, the outside surface was firm. The interior of each piece was soft with smaller air pockets than the
previous group.
A
5.3 centimeters
Height:
B
5.3 centimeters
Height:
C
5.7 centimeters
Height:
Overall, it seems that the group containing 1/2 cups of milk, the quantity closest to the original recipe, has the greatest average height.
Average Height: 2.47
Average Height: 3.73
Average Height: 6.37
Average Height: 6.07 cm
Average Height: 5.43
Step 1
Gather all materials
Step 2
Follow the recipe EXCEPT for the amount of milk
Step 3
For each sample, use varying amounts of milk. Use amounts such as 0 cups, 1/4 cups, 1/2 cups, 3/4 cups, and 1 cup.
Step 4
After baking and taking the bread out of the oven, using a ruler, measure the height of each individual piece of bread you made. Record all observations.
Procedure
Daniel using the electric mixer to evenly and thoroughly mix each ingredient in the blend.
Lilli pours the first set of bread, which is really solely powder, to the top of three molds.
Daniel mixes the second set of bread. As one can see, small pieces of dough formed. We were able to apply pressure to form them into three larger balls.
Daniel pouring in the fourth set of bread with a spoon because it has a liquid consistency.
Lilli putting the tray into the oven once it was heated to 350°F.
All cooked!
Mixing up the third set of bread. It is not clearly shown here, but several seconds after pouring the milk and whisking the mixture, it became a single soft and light piece of dough.
Daniel measuring the bread-muffins with a ruler.
Using the electric mixer with the fifth set of bread. Since it uses one cup of milk, it is mostly liquid.
Picture Gallery
As one can see, the height of the bread is determined by the amount of milk, but it will only increase to a certain point. To achieve the highest possible height, there is a specific ratio of baking powder to milk, which is three tablespoons of baking powder to one cup of milk. Therefore, our hypothesis was incorrect, being that if one adds more milk than the stated ratio, the height of the bread will decrease instead continually increase.

The first batch of bread is pictured before entering the oven, each evenly distributed in each mold.
The last experimental group is pictured before being put in the oven to bake.
The first batch of bread after taken out of the oven.
Milk is a colloid, or a mixture in which microscopic, insoluble particles are suspended throughout the substance, that contains more than one hundred chemical compounds. It predominately consists of water, fat, lactose, casein, which is a protein, whey proteins, and minerals. These components allow it to be monumentally useful in baking since it gives the pastry structure and strength to rise and bake through the proteins, and flavor, softness, and moisture from the carbohydrate and fats. Because it is essentially water-based, it hydrates the dry ingredients, prompts sugar to dissolve, and, as stated previously, assists baking powder in producing carbon dioxide and causing baking goods to rise. Therefore, through this property, milk acts as a stimulus for the chemical reactions to take place.
Chemical Properties of Milk
Possible Areas of Error
There are several possible areas of error in our experiment. We did not use the total amount of dough. We either could not scrape the remainder of the dough from the bowl or we had too much, resulting in our inability to fit them in the muffin mold. Additionally, we used the same mixing bowl for each batch without washing it. Some of the remaining dough from the previous trials may have mixed with the trial we were working on. Lastly, we did not have a one-fourth tablespoon measuring spoon, so we estimated the amount of shortening needed with a half-tablespoon spoon.
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