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EcoShip day

Presentation at the EcoShip day 2013.
by

Andreas Hanning

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of EcoShip day

28 ballast water treatment systems avaliable











Some withdrawals

Economical and ecological impact by invasive species




Industries
Human health
Marine ecosystems
Philip Linne
Eco Ship day 2013
EMISSIONS
TO AIR

ENERGY AND
CLIMATE CHANGE

Martin Eriksson
Lena Granhag
Erik Ytreberg
Are there any effects of antifouling compounds and/or complex chemical mixtures in the environment?
Challenges with the Ballast Water Management Convention and its implementation
Ecotoxicological effects of seawater scrubbing and its relation to ocean acidification
Shipping companies
IGPS
DISCHARGES TO THE SEA
Feed gas composition: 500 ppm NH3, 500-250 ppm NO, 0-250 ppm NO2, 8 % O2 (SV 12200 h-1)
Any hope for the future?
Source: M. Magnusson, E. Fridell, H.H. Ingelsten, Applied Catalysis B-Environmental 111 (2012) 20-26.
200 ppm SO2 ≈ 1 wt.% S in the fuel
Feed gas composition: 250 (∆) or 750 ppm SO2 (o), 500 ppm NO, 500 ppm NH3, 8 % O2 and 4 % H2O (SV 6100 h-1)
Flow reactor studies on SCR-activity as a function of SO2 -concentration and temperature (SO2 + H2O)
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Two possible perspectives: “everything is going so quickly now” BUT “has the industry been by living on borrowed time for the last 20 years?”

Considering cost (i.e. risk of modal shift), transport flexibility and environmental impact; possible business case by promoting Tier IV OR can the industry afford not to?
An example of estimated scale effects
Thank you for the attention!
Source: M. Magnusson, E. Fridell, H.H. Ingelsten, Applied Catalysis B-Environmental 111 (2012) 20-26.
Feed gas composition: 500 ppm NO, 500 ppm NH3, 8 % O2, 500 ppm SO2 and 4 % H2O (SV 300oC)
Flow reactor studies on SCR-activity as a function of space velocity (SO2 + H2O)
Aim: investigate how sulfur, water, SV and low temperatures affect a marine SCR

Method
- experimental flow reactor studies
- commercial vanadia-based washcoated urea-SCR catalyst for marine applications
- SO2 range 0 – 1000 ppm [marine fuel: 0 - 4.5 wt.% S]
- H2O range 0 – 6% [exhaust gas approx. 5% H2O]
- SV range 6100 – 18300 h-1 [vessel SV 15 000 - 25 000 h-1]
- 25 cpsi
Improved SCR for marine applications
Source: International Maritime Organization, Revised MARPOL Annex VI, Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships and NOx Technical Code 2008, 2009 Edition, ISBN 978-92-801-4243-3, International Maritime Organization, London, United Kingdom, 2009.
Source: http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/hd.php [20130206]
Euro I since 1992, equivalent to Tier II (19 years later)
Euro V since 2008, equivalent to Tier III (8 years later)
Euro VI = 95% NOx reduction

but

Ships are bigger = more cargo (scale effect?)
Emissions standards for H-D diesel engines?
TWC (CO, HC and NOx) mandatory since 1989… 24 years ago

but…
No diesel
No cargo
Source (left picture): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saab_9000 [20130206]
Source (right picture): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volvo_700_Series [120219]
How old are you?
Two possible perspectives: “everything is going so quickly now” BUT “has the industry been by living on borrowed time for the last 20 years?”

Considering cost (e.g. risk of modal shift), transport flexibility and environmental impact; possible business case by promoting Tier IV OR can the industry afford not to?
500 ppm SO2 ≈ 2.5 wt.% S in the fuel
Mathias Magnusson

mathias.magnusson@chalmers.se
Mathias Magnusson
Improved SCR for marine applications
Identification of Gross Polluting Ships (IGPS)
Kent Salo
Mathias Magnusson
Improved SCR for marine applications
Regulating air pollution and GHG's in MARPOL Annex VI – the challenge of definition at IMO MEPC
Hannes Johnson
Towards understanding energy efficiency in shipping
Selma Bengtsson
Perspectives on fuel choices
Francesco Baldi
Addressing the challenge of energy efficient ship design – Advanced ship system modeling for lower carbon emissions
N
2
SCR
Regulating Air Pollution and GHG's
in MARPOL Annex VI

– The Challenge of Definition at IMO MEPC
Philip Linnée, Ph.D. Student
School of Business, Economics and Law
Dept. of Law/Lighthouse

philip.linne@law.gu.se
PROBLEM
HOW SHOULD GHG EMISSIONS FROM SHIPS BE REGULATED?
One of the aspects that was debated at MEPC 62 July 2011:
Not a new challenge...
GHG'S
ARE

NOT
AIR POLLUTANTS!
CHALLENGE
CANNOT BE REGULATED IN MARPOL ANNEX VI - THE
AIR POLLUTION
ANNEX!
GHG'S
ARE NOT
AIR POLLUTANTS - DEÉJA VU?
NATURAL SCIENCE
Short-lived compounds like sulphur and nitrogen oxides (SOx and NOx), that are directly toxic to humans, plants or other organisms
AIR POLLUTANTS
Other emitted compounds like carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface temperature
GHG'S
LAW
1979 LRTAP CONV.
‘”Greenhouse gases” means those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation.’
Art. 1 p. 5 of the UNFCCC
1992 UNFCCC
TRENDS
A BLURRING OF DISTINCTIONS
NATURAL SCIENCE
CONCLUSIONS
Regulating GHG's in MARPOL ANNEX VI is not only supported by earlier IMO instruments
AIR POLLUTANTS + GHG'S
=
AIR EMISSIONS
LAW
Refers to something toxic to humans, plants or other organisms
‘… the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the air resulting in deleterious effects of such a nature as to endanger human health, harm living resources and ecosystems and material property and impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment’
Art. 1 (a) of the LRTAP Convention
Focuses on constituents of the atmosphere that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation - they affect the Earth’s radiation balance
Recent natural science describes the difficulty of making clear-cut distinctions between air pollutants and climate changing air emissions.
Legal instruments for air emissions are heavily dependent on science and advanced modelling
Addressing the challenge of energy efficient ship design
Francesco Baldi
Advanced ship system modeling for lower carbon emissions
A future shipping
Environmentally friendly
Energy efficient
Economically competitive
ARE
WE
READY
TO ACCEPT THE CHALLENGE?
Air pollutants & GHG’s
affect each other!
Other reasons for considering these emissions together =
co-benefits of controlling man-caused burning of different fuels
Assumption: when the orientation of science connected to a legal instrument changes, this may also initiate a re-shaping of thinking in the policy process
RAINS-model ---> GAINS-model
UNFCCC regime: Indirect GHG’s have to be reported (e.g. SO2 and NOx)
2012 Revised Gothenburg Protocol: Now more explicit reference to climate change and co-benefits of air pollution and GHG co-control...
Current natural science understandings and trends in legal instruments for land-based regulation also supports the inclusion...
Future probably holds more discussions about controlling
AIR EMISSIONS
(Air pollution + GHG's)
A structured and dynamic habitat
Periphyton
Faust et al. (2001) Aquat. Tox 56 13-32
A mixture of 18 herbicides, each giving 1% when dosed individually, gave almost 50% effect on algal reproduction when dosed together
Mixture toxicity matters!
Are there any effects of antifouling compounds and/or complex chemical mixtures in the environment?
Martin Eriksson
1. Collect existing monitoring data on chemical concentrations.

2. Measure concentrations of a broad set of chemicals at selected sites (suspected to be contaminated and pristine).

3. Compare concentrations (1 & 2) to existing toxicity data for different organisms.

4. Select suspected hazardous chemicals.

5. Group chemicals according to similarity, mechanism of action and (if possible) tolerance mechanism.

6. Select representatives for each group to do field studies and validation experiments.
Which toxicants are responsible for effects in the enviroment?
Differential Sensitivity and Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT)
Are there any effects of irgarol 1051 in the environment?
PICT has increased slightly in the whole studied area over the years!
PICT has increased in the area around the marina over the years.
Blanck et al. (2009) Marine Pollution Bulletin 58
Formas Strong Research Environment Project
1. Use existing monitoring data or measure concentrations of a broad set of chemicals at contaminated and pristine sites.

2. Compare environmental concentrations to existing toxicity data for different organisms.

3. Select suspected hazardous chemicals.

4. Group chemicals according to similarity, mechanism of action and (if possible) tolerance mechanism.

5. Select representatives for each group to do field studies and validation experiments.
NICE - Novel instruments for effect-based assessment of chemical pollution in coastal ecosystems
The international registry of chemicals (CAS registry) contains over
70 million chemicals
.

The American Chemical Society
registers 70 new
chemicals per hour

Between June and December 2008
150 000 chemicals
were preregistered within the European legislation REACH
”All toxicants” – ”Realistic” exposure scenarios
Several trophic levels
Many functional groups
High diversity
Composed of a multitude of different organisms, e.g. viruses, bacteria, microalgae, protozoa, meiofauna (small worms and crustaceans, different larvae)
= microbial community found on submerged substrata (Wetzel, 1975)
= Slime
Periphyton
Questions, comments...?
Thank’s for your attention!
The resulting community is tolerant to
In much the same way
Differential Sensitivity and Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT)
Upon exposure, sensitive organisms will die or be outcompeted by more
tolerant ones
Selection
Time
Different
species
are differently sensitive to toxicants
Third generation technology:
Ion torrent
Sequencing your own genome will cost $1,000 during 2013!!!?
What was Science fiction yesterday is Science today!!!
Moore's Law, describes the doubling of computing power every two years.
Technology that 'keep up' with Moore's Law are widely regarded to be doing exceedingly well.
Second generation technology (Sequencing by synthesis)
First generation sequencing technology (Chain termination sequencing)
?
?
Toxicity
Community tolerance
Tolerance - who and how?
Are there any effects of complex chemical mixtures in the environment?
Formas Strong Research Environment Project
NICE - Novel instruments for effect-based assessment of chemical pollution in coastal ecosystems
Addressing the second question:
Are there any effects of antifouling compounds in the environment?
Addressing the first question:
Are there any effects of antifouling compounds in the environment?
Denmark
Sweden
Norway
6
5
4
3
1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
2012-06-15
Large-scale Sequencing of Periphyton DNA
Metagenomics
Toxicity
Community tolerance
Changed community structure and function
Tolerance mechanism
Mortality
Physiological response
Reveals the 99% previously hidden diversity of microscopic life
Petabases 10^15
Terabases 10^12
Gigabases 10^9
Global Ocean Sampling Expedition
Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (METAHIT)
Data transfer
DNA extraction
The study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples
Metagenomics
Answer the question
”Which chemicals give ecologically relevant adverse effects in the marine environment?”
Systematic PICT studies
Field studies with periphyton communities

Several sites

Several study compounds representative of the different chemical groups

Determine exposure concentrations and community tolerance patterns
(martin.eriksson@chalmers.se)
Bioinformatics
Third generation technology:
SMRT Sequencing
Sequencing the human genome in 15 minutes for less than $100 !!! (2015?)
Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Göoteborg, Sweden

kent.salo@chalmers.se
IGPS
Identification of Gross Polluting Ships
In 2015 50% price difference between 1% and 0.1% sulphur fuel content (prognosis)
Low availability

Higher prices

Incentive for cheating

Surveillance needed

IGPS
Sulphur Emission Controlled Area SECA
Gas emission limits for ships
(IMO, MARPOL Annex VI) and EU legislation
Ship channel to Sankt Petersburg (2011 and 2012). >400 ships measured
Ship channel to Rotterdam (2009) >200 ships
Ship channel to Göteborg (2007, 2012 and 2013). >1000 ships measured
Stationary measurements
Particles
NO
SO2
CO2
Sniffer techniques
CO2 NDIR, CRDS
SO2 Flourescence
NOx Chemiluminescence
PM EEPS, OPS, PILS
Spectroscopy (DOAS)
SO2, NO2, Flux
The surveillance system have been operated from various platforms such as airplanes, helicopters and stationary sites both ship-based and on the ground.

The weight is about 70 kg and it fits into standard 19” rack.
To develop and implement a cost effective surveillance system for compliance monitoring of ships, with respect to present and future IMO/EU legislation regarding stack emissions of SO2, NOx and particles.
Thank you for your attention!
Mi-8 (State Company Mineral), 2012
Piper (Aircraft ApS) 2011, 2012
Dauphin (Belgian coast guard)
2009, 2012
Casa (Swedish coast guard)
2008, 2009
Partenavia P.68 (Enviscope) 2011
Test platforms used for airborne ship monitoring within the IGPS project during 2008 to 2013 (>400 ships)
... but let's first take a coffee break
Lunch
Many possible alternatives...
...but, important criteria needs to be fulfilled...
...still, cost efficient for society to change fuel
Perspectives on fuel choices
Selma Bengtsson
LNG
Not toxic, but can act as an asphyxiant by replacing oxygen in enclosed spaces.
Methanol
Toxic to humans, the lethal dosage of methanol is between 30 and 10 ml per kilogram body weight
The GET-model
Cost efficient fuel choices in the shipping sector while restricting atmospheric CO2 emissions globally:
HFO and MGO
LNG
Bio-methanol
Methanol from
natural gas
Hydrogen
ICE
400ppm CO2, no CSS, base cost
Thank you for your attention!
selma.bengtsson@chalmers.se
HFO and MGO
Methanol from natural gas
Hydrogen
in ICE
LNG
400 ppm CO2, CCS, base cost
Preliminary results
Preliminary results
But incentives are important in order to make it happen!
Preliminary results
A part of the project,
www.effship.com
Collaboration with Maria Taljegard and Maria Grahn in the divison of Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers
Achievements
Project outline
Danish EPA-study
Seawater scrubbing
Erik Ytreberg
Environmental risk assessment of Seawater Scrubbing
Environmental risk assessment of Seawater Scrubbing
From www.jernkontoret.se
Sulphur content regulation
How to transfer lab results to the field?
Alkalinity
Environmental risk assessment
Environmental risk assessment
Environmental risk assessment
1. the impact of the discharges of acidic scrubber water (sulphuric acid) on the pH and buffering capacity of sea water in the Kattegat will be negligible

2. the hazardous substances discharged with wash water are expected to occur in concentrations 3-6 orders of magnitude lower than the EQS and thereby far from known biological effect levels.
erik.ytreberg@chalmers.se
Thank you for your attention!
11:30-12:15
13:15-14:00
14:00-14:45
?
?
Philip Linnée, Ph.D. Student
School of Business, Economics and Law
Dept. of Law/Lighthouse

philip.linne@law.gu.se
12:15-
13:15
Kent Salo
Mobile
kent.salo@chalmers.se
Thank you!
Particles – health and climate

Noise
Air
Resource use
- Energy efficiency potential
- Energy management and energy management systems
- Energy efficient design

Environmental impact assessment
- Environmental/sustainability assessment
of energy sources / energy carriers
of technology
- Sources in of impact in technical system and emission abatement technology
emissions to air - CO2, NOx, SO2, particles, VOC...
emissions to water - Ballast water, Sanitary water, Scrubbing, antifouling paint, marine litter...

Organisational aspects
- Policy, legislation, organisation and management tools
- Logistics
Eco Ship –project areas and issues
Solutions for 2015 and 2020?
Ballastwater – expert support to Swedish shipowners association and others
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) – expert support to Swedish Shipowners Association and others
Sustainability indices for shipping – expert support to Swedish Shipowners Association
Scrubber installation in engine lab
SCR installation in engine lab
IMO Negotiations on Global SOx Emissions from Ships 1988-2008: Explaining Processes and Outcomes
Regulating Vessel-source Air Pollution – Approaches to Controlling Sulphur Oxides
Shipping and the environment
Sea/land interface in waste management
Ref: IMO MEPC 63/INF.2
Chalmers
Maritime environment
Hydrodynamics
Machine systems

School of Business, Economics and Law
Business administration
Law
Eco Ship main research groups
Research and education promoting sustainable resource use and minimization of environmental impact from shipping and maritime activities
Erik Fridell, erik.fridell@ivl.se
ECO SHIP
2013


Particle measurements for gas engines
Characterisation of particle emissions from different marine fuels
Particle measurements for marine engines, post doc
Improved SCR systems for marine applications
Effship WP3 Abatement technology
SONIC




Shipwreck risk assessment, risk assessment model
Shipwreck risk assessment, effect of oil on marine sediments
Energy systems modelling for shipping
Energy Management systems in shipping
Design and modelling of innovative machinery systems for large ships
Fluid-Structure Interaction in Propulsor Design
Overlapping Moving Grids for Seakeeping and Manouevring
STREAMLINE
ULYSSES
Energy Efficient Air Cavity Ships
Development of the GET model for shipping




LCA of marine fuels
Effship, WP 2, future fuels
Projects 2012
Water
Can this curve get a negative slope?
Acidification
Oil spill
Waste
Alien Species
Noise
Fuel



Scrubbers
Emissions and emission control
Energy efficiency
Fuels
Ecological risk assessment
Projects 2012
Policy, legislation and regulations
Expert support to Shipowners etc
Erik Fridell

erik.fridell@ivl.se
AIM
mathias.magnusson@chalmers.se
Yes...
14:45-15:15
http://energyefficientshipping.wordpress.com
Questions?
1. Understanding the carbon space available for shipping in the future
Four ways for science to contribute
Existing internationally negotiated measures
- Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
- Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
How to increase energy efficiency in shipping?
Global CO2 emissions and carbon intensity
Cut costs, of course! But also...
Why is it necessary?
Energy efficiency is not a technical problem
How does it come about?
Hannes Johnson

hannes.johnson@chalmers.se
Towards understanding energy efficiency in shipping
Data from International Energy Agency (2012)
World GDP and CO2 emissions from shipping
Peters, G.P. et al. (2011) Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Nature Climate Change, 2:1, pp. 2-4
Historic CO2 emissions in developed (blue) and developing (green) countries
Five cross-sector global CO2 mitigation scenarios plus three scenario/projections for shipping CO2 emissions
Peters, G.P. et al. (2011) Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Nature Climate Change, 2:1, pp. 2-4
Gilbert, P. et al. (2010). Shipping and climate change: Scope for unilateral action. Technical report, University of Manchester.
Energy efficiency...
- requires human resources and competence
- benefits from having a dedicated organization
- requires systematic means of prioritizing, implementing and following up on projects
- requires infrastructure for measuring and monitoring operational performance
- greatly benefits from good communication between ship and shore

My licentiate thesis is discussed between 13-15.30 on the 7th of March here at Chalmers Lindholmen!
- A large gap between cost-effective potential (20-30% and upwards) and reality
Climate change: shipping produced roughly 3% of global emissions in 2007
But the future is carbon-constrained!
What room is available for shipping in the future?
Knowledge/interest gap amongst researchers?
- 1 peer-reviewed paper on the EEDI (Devanney, 2011; very critical)
- 1 peer-reviewed paper on the SEEMP (Johnson et al., 2013; critical)
- Though more on market-based measures (MBMs)
2. Develop innovative technology that supports (1)
3. Understanding what it necessary for diffusion of these technologies in shipping markets
- What is this energy efficiency gap?
4. Providing decision-support for policy-making taking into account (1), (2) and (3).
Thank you for your attention
Compliance

Process and action taken when no or non-working BW treatment system onboard?
Background
Status
Challenges from different perspectives
-market
-shipowners
-shipyards
-countries/authorities
Ongoing and future work
Outline

Harmonizing work with protocols for exemptions
from BW treatment within HELCOM (Baltic) and OSPAR (North Atlantic)

Research project targeted to develop sampling methods and protocols including Gothenburg harbour
Ongoing and future work

Regulation A3 –Exception
including concept
same location

Regulation A4 –Exemption
granted based on
risk assessment
Countries/Authorities
Estimated installations during coming years (30 per day)
Shipyards
Requirements and space

Cost

Responsibilty if withdrawal
of nonworking equipment?

Investigation of environmental side effects
and power consumption
in treatment systems
Ship owners and operators
On the market
Market supply of treatment systems

Ship owners and operators

Shipyards installation capacity

Countries/Authorities
Challenges from different perspectives
Convention adopted by IMO 2004,
Aim to reduce transfer of marine organisms with ships ballast water
Background
Sweden 2012
Installation status 2012
Percentage
ratified:
29
required:
35
Countries:
ratified:
36
required:
30
Ratification status Feb 2013
Background
lena.granhag@chalmers.se
Challenges with the
Ballast Water Management Convention
(BWMC) and its implementation
Data from paper by King et al 2012 ”Preview of the global ballast water treatment markets”
Lena Granhag
Poison A
1-6 represents a gradient of irgarol contamination
In addition to periphyton communities NICE will include effects on Barnacles and different fish species
martin.eriksson@chalmers.se
Periphyton
A structured and dynamic habitat
Full transcript