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Hundred Years' War
Transcript of Hundred Years' War
He declared himself the king of France, through rights of legal claim to the throne through his mother, Isabella of France. All of the battles of the Hundred Years War were fought in France. The Hundred Years War was fought between England and France and later Burgundy The war introduced new weapons and tactics that marked the end of medieval warfare. It also marked the beginning of French nationalism with the advent and death of Joan of Arc, who became a French icon. Weaponry Towards the end of the war, gunpowder was introduced. Since there were new technologies in casting metal it allowed for primitive cannons to be used. The Hundred Years war was the first effective use of field artillery in Europe. The Hundred Years’ War saw the introduction of the English longbow into warfare. First, its shots were so strong that they could pierce a knight's armor.
Second, the longbow had more range than a crossbow.
It was much easier and cheaper to train an archer than a knight.
The availability of archers brought about the development of a paid and standing army. Armor The King of England, Edward III, declares himself King of France through line of descent. The 100 years war saw the transition between chainmaille armor to plate armor. French law - power is inherited through the paternal line.
English law - power is inherited through the paternal and maternal line. The helmets wore then were full metal, pointed at the top, and had a face shield. Knights started using the breastplate around the beginning of the war. They also started using arm and leg armor. Shields were also popular. They were made of wood with a leather strap for the knight to hold it. Battle Over the Throne Raids France in 1356, causing warfare to erupt again
Edward commanded the right wing of the English forces at Crecy.
Named the "Black Prince" because of the black armor he was wearing during the Battle of Crecy. Weaponry Middle ages Knights used many hand held weapons such as polearms, battle axes, maces, billhooks, caltrops, flails, poleaxes, quarterstaff, and war hammers. After the French King, Charles IV, died without a heir, Edward III claimed the throne through his mother, sister of Charles IV. Due to French law, Philip VI, cousin of Charles IV, was given the throne. http://www.blackstudies.ucsb.edu/antillians/hundredyrswar.html http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/archive/hundredyearswar.cfm?CFID=34812387&CFTOKEN=44844814&jsessionid=4630af3f2b95ec9932a96e605a347c713d32 Henry VI Land Disputes The successive kings of England, beginning with William I, controlled several areas of French land as fiefs. The French regained most of France after Edward "The Black Prince" were lost in battle. Siege weapons were the most powerful weapons at the beginning of the war. The king of France received the throne, France did not believe in lineage through the mother. Ballistas, Mangonels, Battering rams, Trebuchets, Catapults, Siege Towers were the most common siege weapons. France attempted to regain these territories, beginning with Gascony. Knights The Hundred Years' War began with the French attacking Gascony on May 24, 1337. To become a knight in the middle ages took a long time. To become a knight: 1st: A knight must be of noble blood. Edward III ("The Black Prince") died in war in 1376. Richard II, who was only a child, succeeded his grandfather. The English war effort was extremely weakened by the loss of a strong leader. 2nd: At 7 they went to be a page or little vassel. They had to basically be a servant to noble. 3rd: Become a squire (knight's servant) and train to become a knight. 4th: Become a knight during special knighting ceremony. Maps/Geography Two thirds of France is mountains and hills, with the Alps, Pyrenees and Vosges ranges. Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest mountain in Europe. Consequences England is an island made mainly of two different climate areas. The Highlands: rocky, rugged hills and eroded mountain faces, interrupted by valleys and extensive plains. Generally cold with lots of rain. The Lowlands: Experiences less rain and more sunshine than the high-lying regions. The landscape has rolling hills that are not very high. King John II http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/hundred_years_war.htm The Hundred Years' War was one of the most devastating pre-industrial wars in history. Edward III ("The Black Prince")
Battle, famine, and disease led to an incredible number of deaths. A Change in the Warring Countries http://www.bretrodgers.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Impacts-of-the-Hundred-Years-War.pdf Key Battles Prince Edward was born June 15, 1330 in Woodstock, England.
He died June 8, 1376 in Westminster, England. During and after the war, England and France were forced to create their own identities. Battle of Cadsand, 1337 The Battle of Cadsand initiates hostilities. The Flemish defenders of the island were thrown into disorder by the first use of the England longbow on Continental soil. September 19, the English army went to battle with the French and won the hardest-fought and most important battle of the war. This was a great victory for Edward that proved the superior fighting capacity of his army. Combat of the Thirty, 1351 Thirty French Knights from Chateau Josselin under Beaumanoir call out and defeat thirty English Knights under Pembroke and Brambaugh Effects on England Late 1431, Henry VI was crowned king of France England eliminated the French language as its official court language. Battle of Poitiers, 1356 Henry VI was involved in the final battle of Hundred Years War, the battle of Castillon.
The French troops were driven out of France for the previous years. Henry sent a new army to Bordeaux, France to maintain some territory in France.
1453, the English forces attack a french force that was besieging the town of Castillion. Bordeaux became French territory and the English survivors sailed home. Edward the Black Prince captures King John II of France, France plunges into chaos. In late 1453, King Henry VI went insane.
By that time the coast of Calais was the only English possession left in France. Effects on France http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/archive/hundredyearswar2.cfm http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler//Hundred_Years.html http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/hundred-years-war.htm Bibliography Joan of Arc Battle of Castillon, 1453 - Th Final Battle King Philip VI The Valois use cannons to defeat the Lancastrians and end the Hundred Years' War. The 70-year old Talbot is killed while trying to rally his fleeing troops. Bibliography France was originally composed of many fiefs, but the war led to France becoming a unified nation. Bibliography http://www.middle-ages.org.uk http://ehistory.osu.edu http://www.au.af.mil http://historywarsweapons.com Born on January 6,1412 http://geography.about.com http://www.england.org.za Battle of Agincourt, 1415 October 25 English longbowmen under Henry V defeat French under Charles d'Albert. After the successful siege at Harfleur, Henry marched his force of about 6000 knights, archers and men-at-arms towards Calais. During his march the French army of 20,000 was able to position itself between Henry and Calais. Mary d'Avignon declared that France would be ruined by a woman and would then be restored by an armed virgin from the marches of Lorraine. Joan was not knowledgeable of the prophecy until 1429 when she had invested sense of having a mission to free France from the English. She traveled to see Charles who refused to meet her at first. Joan had knowledge of a secret prayer that could only be known by Charles himself and God.
She was then permitted to set fourth with an army of 4,000 or 5,000 men to go to Orleans. Bibliography Joan entered into Orleans on April 29, 1429. After some discouragements, the English retreated and raised the siege on May 8. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw07war100kings.htm England's monarchy grew stronger as French lands were lost. On March 10th 1431, she was accused of being a heretic and a witch and was found guilty. http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/blackprince.htm http://www.nndb.com/people/963/000094681/ http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler//Hundred_Years.html http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/joanofarc.htm http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_hundredyears.php http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/hundred_years_war.htm http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/end-hundred-years-war The Hundred Years' War http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/end-hundred-years-war 1337-1453 Joseph McGee, Damon Thomas, Anne Lonsway, and Brandon Woenkhaus In 1341, Philip intervened in the succession conflict in Brittany. Philip VI and Edward III signed a three-year-truce. This truce only lasted 2 years.
In 1346, Edward invaded Normandy and defeated Philip at Crecy. http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/people/philip-vi-king-france.html To finance the war Philip resorted to selling privileges to provincial assemblies, a general salt tax, loans, and the debasement of the coinage.
During Philip's reign, France was plagued by the Black Death. England and France Both countries' people faced increased taxes to fund the war. England
Effected mostly by black death
Increased involvement in the church France
Economy and citizens faced devastation Facts About 185,000 French and English deaths. Black Death Accounted for 75 million deaths. About 55 major Battles were fought. Black Death stopped the war for 8 years. Major Leaders King John ruled from 1350 until his death. He was otherwise known as "John the Good". During the Battle of Poitiers, John was captured and became a prisoner in London. In an exchange of hostages, John was released from captivity. He died in 1364 and his son Charles V succeeded him.