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Atmosphere and Weather

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Kelsey Haley

on 19 May 2011

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Transcript of Atmosphere and Weather

Composition of the Atmosphere MAJOR COMPONENTS are... Nitrogen 76-78% Oxygen 21-23% Argon 1% Layers of the Atmosphere troposphere closest to Earth (7 miles, 10 kilometers)
weather changes occur
contains most of the water vapor and carbon dioxide
higher the altitude the more the temperature drops stratosphere mesosphere minor components include: Neon Helium Xenon Carbon Dioxide second layer (7 miles, 10-50 kilometers)
contains ozone
increasing energy (temperature) third layer of the atmosphere (30-50 miles, 50-80 kilometers
coldest layer
as you go higher in altitude, the more the temperature rises
most meteors burn up in the mesosphere thermosphere hottest & highest layer
Nitrogen and Oxygen absorb sunlight
creates higher temperature Earth Sun Relationship 20% of Sun's radiation is absorbed by atmosphere (ozone) 30% is scattered or reflected by the atmosphere 50% is absorbed by Earth
(then transmitted and/or re-radiated) 5 Factors that can influence the Distributation of Solar Radiation: latitude time of day seasons geographic position weather Principle Motions of Earth Rotation Revolution earth spinning on its axis movement of the earth (in its orbit) around the sun Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Our planet rotates once every 24 hours making the daily cycle of darkness and daylight all matter is in constant random motion therefore all matter has kinetic energy Electomagnetic Waves different types of waves have different amounts of energy based upon: wavelength & frequency big freqency= small wavelength= small energy small frequency= big wavelength= big energy Atmospheric Moisture minimal molecular motion
extreme dense packed random molecular motion
loose packed extreme random & elastic motion
extremely loose packed Relative Humidity -ratio of amout of water vapor in the air to maximum amount of vapor air can hold at that temperature as temperature increases, air can hold more water vapor ( cooler air can hold less moisture) Sling Psychrometer -instrument that measures humidity consists of 2 thermometers one with a wet bulb and one with a dry bulb *swirling the psychrometer cirrculates air* If the air is dry... more water will evaporate off wet bulb
thermometer will lose more heat lower temperature
reading on wet bulb-greater temperature difference If the air was relative wet/ moist... less water will evaporate off wet bulb
thermometer will lose less heat-higher termperature
reading on wet bulb-small temperature difference Global Wind Patterns the apparent deflective force of Earth’s rotation on all free-moving objects, including the atmosphere and oceans. Deflection is to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Coriolis Effect Parts of a Wave amplitude height of the wave wavelength distance a wave travels before it repeats itself crest the highest point of the wave trough the lowest point of the wave frequency measures how fast a wave repeats itseld Major Pressure Belts Subtropical High
Subpolar Low
Polar High
Equatorial Low Minor Wind Belts Polar Easterlies
Northeast Tradewinds
Southeast Tradewinds Isobars and Air Pressure pressure gradient closely spaced isobars indicate a steep pressure gradient and high
winds. Widely spaced isobars indicate a weak pressure gradient and lighter winds has both magnitude and direction pressure gradient is the driving force of wind Local Wind Patterns Sea Breeze during the day
air over heats up more quickly
creates LOW PRESSURE over land
ocean/sea temperature remains constant
creates HIGH PRESSURE over water Land Breeze during the night
air over land cools more quickly
creates HIGH PRESSURE over land
ocean/sea temperature remains constant
creates LOW PRESSURE over land Valley Breeze during the day
sides of mountain recieve more sunlight
creates LOW PRESSURE on mountain tops
valley recieves less direct sunlight
creates HIGH PRESSURE in valley Mountain Breeze during the night
high altitude air cools quickly
creates HIGH PRESSURE over mountain
lower altitude valley can retain more heat
creates LOW PRESSURE in valley
cold air rushes down maountain sides Air Masses major air masses that influence North America Maritime Polar (mP) wet and dry Continental Polar (cP) cold and dry Maritime Tropical (mT) wet and warm Continental Tropical (cT) warm and dry Fronts Warm Front Cold Front Stationary Front Occluded Front forms when warm air moves into an area formerly covered by cooler air forms when cold, dense air moves into a region occupied by warmer air the flow of air on either side of a front is neither toward the cold air mass nor toward the warm air mass, but almost parallel to the line of the front When an active cold front overtakes a warm front Storms Thunder & Lightning -heat realeased when water condenses plus friction generated from particles lifted by hot air generate electrical charges positive charges accumulate near top of cloud
negative charges accumulate at bottom
Earth is "grounded" Tornadoes thunderstorm meets high altitude winds
air masses are moving horizontally to each other
horizontal winds create spinning air masses
air masses begin to rotate -warm air rises
-cold air sinks Tornado Alley is the area where most tornado are located based on the continental polar air masses and the maritime tropical air masses collide making the tornadoes Rainshadow Effect Air flows over a mountain range and as it rises, it begins to cool. If there is moisture in the air while cooling, the air then condenses (rains) as it makes its way over the mountain. Once passing the crest of the mountain, it begins to sink down and starts to become warm and dry air mass. Atmosphere and Weather by Kelsey Haley time of day seasons weather geographic position latitude Seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis away or toward the sun as it travels through its year-long path around the sun. all minor components are less than 1%
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