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Jenny Hanon 16 October 2012
Transcript of Temperate Grassland
Sarah Berschinski and Anna Sides Temperate Grassland Grasslands are located in mid-latitude areas such as the Prairie and Pacific Grasslands of North America, the Pampas of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Locations of Temperate Forests
Around the World Because trees and large shrubs are rarely found in grassland areas, grasses dominate the landscape.
Of the many species of grasses that thrive in this biome, the most common include purple needle grass, wild oats, foxtail, ryegrass, and buffalo grass.
These grasses are unique because they have underground stems and buds that allow for pretection against wildfires. This is one of the reasons why trees and shurbs aren't as common in Temperate Grasslands.
Wildflowers also grow well in temperate grasslands.
Popular flowers that you might find growing on grasslands are asters, blazing stars, goldenrods, sunflowers, clovers, and wild indigos. Common Species
Vegetation More on Climate: Screaming Hairy Armadillo
Scientific Name: Chaetophractus vellerosus
Squeals when threatened
Burrows underground to escape the heat
Major threats are habitat loss and over hunting Endangered Animals Semiarid, continental climates of the middle latitudes.
Most of this precipitation is fallen as snow, this snow acts as a reservoir of moisture to encourage the beginning of a new growing season.
The seasons are exaggerated in Temperate Grassland.
Depending on the latitude, the climate changes slightly but this is the most common. Grasslands are found where there is not enough regular rainfall to support the growth of a forest, but not so little as to form a desert. The prairies of the Central Lowlands and High Plains of the US and Canada. The Palouse Prairie of eastern Washington state, the California grasslands, and the desert grasslands of the Southwest are also temperate grasslands. North America The Palouse Prairie of eastern Washington State The steppes from Ukraine eastward through Russia and Mongolia. Eurasia The steppe grasslands in Mongolia The pampas of Argentina, Uruguay, and southeastern Brazil South America Prairie bush clover
Scientific Name: Lespedeza leptostachya
Endemic to the Midwest as it is known only in Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin.
Major threat is loss of habitat Endangered Plants The Pampas of Argentina The veld in the Republic of South Africa. Africa They receive 25.4-50.8 cm (10-20 inches) of rainfall a year. Strong winds blow loose soil from the ground after plowing, especially during droughts. Scientific name: Nassella pulchra
Purple Needlegrass is native to California were it thrives in coastal hills, valleys and mountain ranges.
It was named the state grass of california in 2004 because of its presence and the most widespread native grass species in California. Purple Needlegrass Precipitation in the temperate grasslands usually occurs in the late spring and early summer.
The annual average is about 50.8 to 88.9 cm (20-35 inches).
The temperature range is very large over the course of the year.
Summer temperatures can be well over 38° C (100 degrees Fahrenheit)
Winter temperatures can be as low as -40° C (-40 degrees Fahrenheit). Sunflower Prairie Dogs Savannas receive an average annual rainfall of 76.2-101.6 cm (30-40 inches). However, certain savannas can receive as little as 15.24 cm (6 inches) or as much as 25.4 cm (10 inches) of rain a year. Due to the abundance of grasses in this biome, there is a lack of shelter from predators as well as a large amount of grass for food
Because of this, herbivorous and plant-eating grazers called ungulates dominate Grasslands.
Ungulates are mammals with hoofs, like horses or deer.
Their long legs help them run fast to escape grassland predators.
This biome does not have much animal diversity, especially compared to the Savannah.
Some animals that live in temperate grasslands in North America are bison, antelope, birds, gophers, prairie dogs, coyotes, and insects.
On the steppes you’ll find similar animals to the Great Plains including lynx, antelopes, falcons, and fox. Common Species
Animals Scientific name: Vulpes vulpes
The red Fox is the most common and widerspread species of the fox.
Their cunning and swiftness allow them to survive well in the temperate grasslands. Red Foxes Legal Status and Protection
Less than 8 percent of all grasslands are protected worldwide. This qualifies temperate graswslands as the lowest protection of any biome.
In some places, national parks are set up to preserve the grasslands and grasses are replanted in some other places where grasses have been cleared for farming. This increasing awareness is certainly necessary in protecting the grassland biome.
Grasslands feature rich, fertile soil, making them ideal for agricultural uses.
Because this and the lack of animal diversity, it is difficult to encourage people to support the protection of this biome. What is being done? Scientific Name: Helianthus annuus
This annual flower is native to the Americas
To grow to its best, the Sunflower needs full sun light. This is what makes the temperate grasslands an ideal habitat because there is a lack of foliage. From the genus Cynomys, these burrowing rodents are native to the grasslands f North America.
There are five different species: The black-tailed, white-tail, Gunnison's, Utah and Mexican Prairie Dogs.
Because they make their homes underground, these animals can thrive with a lack of foliage. Natural Temperate Grassland is usually associated with heavy textured soils with low nutrient levels. They range from skeletal to moderately deep, well drained sandy clay loams, clay loams and loamy clays on upper slopes, ridges and crests, to poorly drained, moderately deep loams and deeper organic soils in valley floors and along creeks, river flats and drainage lines. The grasslands are associated with chernozem soils on undulating basalt plains on the Monaro, and with red and grey clays, loams and silty or sandy clay loams on drier valleys and hillsides.
The soil in the North America are more rich brown and damp compared to Africa. Geology Temperate grasslands in the mid west - rolling hills and prairies. The soil of grasslands in North America Persian Onager
Scientific Name: Equus hemionus onager
Only a few hundred in the wild
Major threats are poaching for meat/hide and habitat loss Endangered Animals Gemsbok or Oryx
Scientific Name: Oryx gazella
Major threats are human hunting and other animals such as cheetahs Endangered Animals Wind is a constant factor in temperate grasslands where, the area is flat and has no tress or coverings to block the wind. Wind Strong winds blow across the temperate grasslands. Without trees or other wind breaks, the prairies and great plains in the United States experience conditions that can disrupt and displace the soil. In Africa: In October, a series of violent thunderstorms, followed by a strong drying wind, signals the beginning of the dry season. Also wind can often cause dust storms. In the mid latittudes (25-35 n/s) it is usualy below 2000 ft. Elevation One of the main environmental concerns regarding temperate grasslands is the conversion of grassland to farmland.
The rich soil is ideal for farming and grazing.
Instead of native grasses, now grasslands supply corn, wheat, and other grains, as well as grazing areas for domestic animals, such as sheep and cattle. Problems that threaten the biome Many grasslands are on the verge of being deserts due to the low levels of plant growth.
There is a difficulty is drawing a line between a moist desert and a dry grassland.
If global temperatures rise, it is predicted that some current marginal grasslands will become deserts as rainfall patterns change. Problems that threaten the biome Glade Quillwort
Scientific Name: Isoetes butleri
The main threat to this species is the loss of habitat.
Agricultural developlment can increase nutrient levels (e.g. fertilizers or cow/horse manure) in the soil increasing the potential for invasive species to out compete the glade quillwort. Endangered Plants Endangered Plants Ear Leaf False-foxglove
Scientific Name: Agalinis auriculata
Hemiparasitic by taking water and minerals from other plants, but are not wholly dependent upon the host to survive
Major threat is loss of habitat to farming land Precipitation & Seasonality Temperate Grasslands Rock! Yipe!