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The Road to Revolution
Transcript of The Road to Revolution
French and Indian War
1754 - 1763
Treaty of Paris of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763
Stamp Act of 1765
Taxation without representation
Sons of Liberty
Non-importation Agreements 1765 - 1775
Declaratory Act - 1766
The Quartering Act of 1765
Townshend Acts of 1767
Boston Massacre - 1770
Huge national debt of 140 million pounds.
At least 70 million of this was just from the war.
The British gained new lands in North America from France and Spain
The British need a ton of money!
British need to find a way to regulate Indian trade, supervise land claims, and deter / resolve the conflicts between settlers and the Indians . . . in other words an army!
No colonial settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Indians refuse to accept defeat of French and Indian War
Indian's worried because the British were taking a lot of land
Soldier's need someplace to stay when they are on the march or away from the barracks.
Parliament passed the Stamp Act in February 1765. All legal documents would be void unless they were executed on officially stamped paper.
Colonists no different from the large nonvoting majority of subjects within Great Britain. All were virtually represented in Parliament. So Parliament was justified in creating this tax
Colonists weren't in Parliament and none of them could vote for a member of Parliament. The colonists were not represented in Britain
Townshend Revenue Act of 1767 imposed new duties in colonial ports on certain imports that the colonies could legally buy only from Britain: tea, paper, glass, red and white wine, lead, and painter's colors.
Townshend's clear objective was to use the new American revenue to pay the salaries of governors and judges in the colonies thereby freeing them from dependence on the assemblies.
Rioting against Stamp Act. People in Britain would finally lend their support to a repeal the Stamp Act in order to end the crisis.
Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to make binding laws on the American colonies
Townshend also ridiculed the distinction between internal and external taxes
American Whig Businesses and Sons of Liberty refused to consume or import British goods
Citizens start causing trouble
Crowd was taunting soldiers at the customs house and a solider accidentally fired and the others fired into the crowd killing five citizens
Bostonians will start to use common street violence to resist British "Law & Order"
Lots of trade. Fewer imports more exports
Goods imported from colonies on British ships only. Only certain people had the exclusive right to sell it. Made England a monopoly.
Made Britain a monopoly and restricted the colonies from trading with other countries
Colonists feel like they only exist to enrich mother country.
Colonists selling low-priced, smuggled Dutch tea so the East India Company was being undersold
Tea Act - 1773
Lord North established this to save the East India Company
Colonists saw the Tea Act as a Trojan horse that would destroy liberty by seducing the settlers into accepting parliamentary sovereignty
Boston Tea Party - December 1773
Colonists would force tea ships to not land their cargo. Governor Hutchinson forced three tea ships to land their cargo but Boston radicals threw all the tea overboard causing British to lose a lot of money.
The Coercive/Intolerable Acts - 1774
Britain shocked by this willful destruction of private property. Convinced severe punishment needed
Boston Port Act
Closed the port of Boston until Bostonians paid for the tea
Massachusetts Government Act
Overturned Massachusetts Charter. Made the council appointive by the Colonies Governor and restricted town meetings.
The First Continental Congress - September 1774
Gaspée Affair - 1772
Rhode Islanders board a grounded customs vessel and burned the ship. Britain demanded for Rhode Island to send the perpetrators to England for trial.
Committees of Correspondence
Colonists consider this as a threat to their liberty
Kept in touch with another to anticipate the next assault on the colonists' liberties
Basically gave France more power in America
Twelve colonies (except Georgia) sent delegates to meet together at Philadelphia.
Agreed to nonexportation, all the acts had to be repealed, and Parliament was no longer a legitimate legislature for the colonies
News about the New England Governments being in a state of rebellion shook the control over Parliment held by Prime Minister North. Although, it would still be up to Prime Minister North to decide on a course of action to respond to the growing rebellion.
Battle of Lexington and Concord - April 19th, 1775
Major General Thomas Gage, the Governor of Massachusetts & commander of British forces of the over 3000 troops in Boston, sent troops to Concord to confiscate and destroy weapons of the local milita stored in the area and if possible to arrest John Hancock and Samuel Adams. British killed nine and wounded ten at Lexington Green to a loss of only one of their own. As the day progressed the outnumbered militiamen would gain more men from every direction to join the fight. The British Regulars would be stopped at the North Bridge in Concord and they would be forced to withdraw back to Boston. They would be under fire the whole way back.
Olive Branch Petition
Colonists stating that they were still loyal to Great Britain and asking for an end to hostilities.
King George III refused to consider it because he viewed the Continental Congress to be an unlawful assembly and instead based on even more fighting (The Battle of Bunker Hill) issued the Proclamation of Rebelllion.
Declaration of Independence
America declares independence from Britain
British Troops needed to defend this new territory from both the Native Americans and the French was estimated to be at least 10,000 soldiers station full time in the new territory.
This would cost an estimated
Honored wartime commitments by turning the vast trans-Appalachian into an Indian reservation and prohibited all private individuals from purchasing Indian lands